Flashcards in Lecture 15: Developmental Disorders Deck (29):
What is a malformation?
A primary error of morphogenesis usually involving genetic and environmental factors
What are disruptions?
Disturbances in otherwise normal morphogenetic processes.
EX: amniotic bands
What are deformations?
Disturbances in otherwise normal morphogenetic processes caused by abnormal biomechanical forces such as uterine constraints.
What are sequences?
Series of events triggered by one initiating factor.
What are syndromes?
Constellations of congenital anomalies that are thougth to be pathologically related.
EX: viral infection
What period is considered the critical period?
T/F: Genetic mutations are often inherited as autosomal recessive or X-linked diseases.
80-90% of fetuses with _____, and other chromosomal abnormalities, die in utero
What is often the result of the retention of a polar body or by fertilization by more than one sperm?
T/F: Euploidy fetuses will grow to term.
False, usually results in early spontaneous abortion
What affect would thalidomide have on development?
Limb and ear defects & cardiovascular abnormalities
What affect would alcohol have on development?
Growth & mental retardation & malformation of face and trunk
What affect would retinoic acid have on development?
Facial, thymus, & outflow tract of the heart defects
What are the 2nd most common cause of neonatal mortality?
Prematurity and growth restictions
Hyaline membrane disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, interventricular hemorrhage, & developmental delay are all hazards of what?
What are fetal factors resulting in fetal growth restriction?
Chromosome disorders, congenital anomalies, congenital infections
What are placental factors resulting in fetal growth restrictions?
Vascular anomalies, placenta previa, multiple gestations, genetic mosaicism, & thrombosis & infarction
What are maternal factors resulting in fetal growth restrictions?
Preeclampsia, hypertension, drugs, malnutrition
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is related to _____ and, therefore, is related to _____.
Immaturity of the lungs.
T/F: Incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome are inversely proportional.
Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is the result of a deficiency in _____?
What does surfactant do?
Reduces surface tension between alveoli so they don't stick together
What is fetal hydrops?
Accumulation of edema fluid in the fetus
What are immune hydrops?
Blood group incompatibility between mother and fetus
What is nonimmune hydrops caused by?
Cardiovascular defects & chromosomal anomalies
What is kernicturus?
Brain damage caused by jaundice
What is preeclampsia and what is it characterized by?
Pregnancy induced hypertension.
BP of 140/190 after 20 weeks of gestation
What is the severity order of the 3 "eclampsia" conditions?