Lecture 15: Developmental Disorders Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 15: Developmental Disorders Deck (29):
0

What is a malformation?

A primary error of morphogenesis usually involving genetic and environmental factors

1

What are disruptions?

Disturbances in otherwise normal morphogenetic processes.
EX: amniotic bands

2

What are deformations?

Disturbances in otherwise normal morphogenetic processes caused by abnormal biomechanical forces such as uterine constraints.
EX: clubfoot

3

What are sequences?

Series of events triggered by one initiating factor.
EX: Oligohydramnios

4

What are syndromes?

Constellations of congenital anomalies that are thougth to be pathologically related.
EX: viral infection

5

What period is considered the critical period?

Weeks 3-8

6

T/F: Genetic mutations are often inherited as autosomal recessive or X-linked diseases.

True

7

80-90% of fetuses with _____, and other chromosomal abnormalities, die in utero

Aneuploidy

8

What is often the result of the retention of a polar body or by fertilization by more than one sperm?

Euploidy

9

T/F: Euploidy fetuses will grow to term.

False, usually results in early spontaneous abortion

10

What affect would thalidomide have on development?

Limb and ear defects & cardiovascular abnormalities

11

What affect would alcohol have on development?

Growth & mental retardation & malformation of face and trunk

12

What affect would retinoic acid have on development?

Facial, thymus, & outflow tract of the heart defects

13

What are the 2nd most common cause of neonatal mortality?

Prematurity and growth restictions

14

Hyaline membrane disease, necrotizing enterocolitis, sepsis, interventricular hemorrhage, & developmental delay are all hazards of what?

Prematurity

15

What are fetal factors resulting in fetal growth restriction?

Chromosome disorders, congenital anomalies, congenital infections

16

What are placental factors resulting in fetal growth restrictions?

Vascular anomalies, placenta previa, multiple gestations, genetic mosaicism, & thrombosis & infarction

17

What are maternal factors resulting in fetal growth restrictions?

Preeclampsia, hypertension, drugs, malnutrition

18

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is related to _____ and, therefore, is related to _____.

Immaturity of the lungs.
Premature birth

19

T/F: Incidence of neonatal respiratory distress syndrome are inversely proportional.

True

20

Neonatal respiratory distress syndrome is the result of a deficiency in _____?

Pulmonary surfactant

21

What does surfactant do?

Reduces surface tension between alveoli so they don't stick together

22

What is fetal hydrops?

Accumulation of edema fluid in the fetus

23

What are immune hydrops?

Blood group incompatibility between mother and fetus
EX: Rh-antibodies

24

What is nonimmune hydrops caused by?

Cardiovascular defects & chromosomal anomalies

25

What is kernicturus?

Brain damage caused by jaundice

26

What is preeclampsia and what is it characterized by?

Pregnancy induced hypertension.
BP of 140/190 after 20 weeks of gestation

27

What is the severity order of the 3 "eclampsia" conditions?

Preeclampsia-->Preclampsia-->Eclampsia

28

What is a major symptom of eclampsia?

Grand mal seizures