lecture 17- energy balance and metabolism I Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in lecture 17- energy balance and metabolism I Deck (42):
1

what is the feta G sub not in the body

-12000 cal/mole

2

what is the final common pathway for the transport of almost all the carbs to the tissue cells

glucose

3

what can galactose and glucose be converted into in order to enter the glycolytic pathway

fructose-6-phosphate

4

where can phosphorylation of glucose be reversed

liver, renal and intestinal cells

5

what does glucokinase do

transfers phosphate from ATP

6

what does phosphatase do

removes phosphate

7

what does phosphorylase

catalyzes production of glucose-1-phosphate from glycogen

8

what factors can activate phosphorylase

epinephrine and glucagon

9

what are the effects of phosphorylase

promotes conversion of glycogen to glucose (then glucose can be released into blood)

10

what are the end products of glycolysis

pyruvic acid (2), hydrogens (4), ATP (2 molecules)

11

what are the end product of the conversion from pyretic acid to acetyl-CoA

acetyl CoA (2), hydrogens (4), CO2 (2)

12

where does the TCA cycle occur

mitochondrial matrix

13

what are the end products of the TCA cycle

hydrogens (16), ATP (2), CO2 (4)

14

where does oxidative phosphorylation

occurs on mitochondrial cristae

15

what are the fate of electrons removed from hydrogen ions

enter ETC

16

what are the major components of the ETC

flavoprotein, several iron sulfide proteins, ubiquinone, cytochrome A3 (cytochrome oxidase)

17

where is cytochrome A3 (cytochrome oxidase) located

inner membrane

18

what are the numbers of ATPs formed per glucose molecule (oxidative phosphorylation)

2 ATPs from glycolysis, 2 ATPs from TCA, 34 ATPs from oxidative phosphorylation

19

what is the maximum number of ATPs per glucose molecule

38

20

how many calories are there per mole of glucose

456,000

21

what is glucose preferentially stored as until the storage cells(liver and muscle) are saturated

glycogen

22

how is triglyceride absorbed form intestinal lumen

most are digested into monoglycerides and fatty acids,
intestinal epithelial cells resynthesize these into triglycerides that enter the lymph as chylomicrons,
apoprotein B is absorbed to the chylomicron surfaces

23

how are chylomicrons transported to the venous system

via thoracic duct

24

what tissues are especially involved in removing chylomicrons form the blood

adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, heart

25

where is lipoprotein lipase transported and what does it doe

transported to surface of capillary epithelial cells in order to hydrolyze chylomicron triglycerides, releasing fatty acids and glycerol

26

what conditions increase the utilization of fat for energy

starvation, diabetes mellitus

27

what type of lipoproteins are synthesized by intestinal cells

chylomicrons

28

describe VLDLs

high concentrations of triglycerides and moderate amounts of cholesterol and phospholipids. transport lipids mainly from liver to adipose tissue

29

describe LDLs

high concentration of cholesterol and moderate concentrate of phospholipids

30

describe HDLs

high concentrations of proteins and low concentrations of cholesterol and fatty acids

31

what cells do not use fatty acids for energy

brain cells and RBCs

32

where are fatty acids converted to acetyl-CoA

in mitochondria

33

how does acetyl-CoA enter the TCA cycle

binding to oxaloacetic acid

34

what are the products from beta-oxidation of one molecule of stearic acid

9 acetyl-CoA molecules and 146 molecules of ATP

35

what type of acid is acetoacetic acid

keto acid

36

give examples of ketone bodies

acetoacetic acid, beta-hydroxybutyric acid, and acetone

37

what conditions favor ketosis

starvation, diabetes, diet composed almost entirely of fats

38

what are involved in the 2 set process of the synthesis of fatty acids

malonyl-CoA and NADPH

39

what is the importance of fat synthesis

more fat can be stored in tissues than carbs.
weight for weight, fat contains 2.5X the energy of carbs

40

what occurs as the result of damage to the vascular endothelium

increases the expression of adhesion molecules,
decreases release of NO and other substances that prevent adhesion of macromolecules and cells

41

what is the role of macrophages in the development of atherosclerotic plaques

ingest lipoproteins, become foam cells, form visible fatty streaks

42

what are the basic causes of atherosclerosis

increased LDLs and familial hypercholesterolemia (defective LDL receptors)