physio exam 2 review ppt Flashcards Preview

PHYSIOLOGY SEMESTER 2 > physio exam 2 review ppt > Flashcards

Flashcards in physio exam 2 review ppt Deck (134):
1

what layer in the motor cortex are the pyramidal cells located

5th layer

2

what layers have the input signals in the motor cortex

2-4

3

what type of neurons are the anterior motor neurons in the spinal cord

alpha motor neurons

4

what are interneurons responsible for

most of spinal cord integrative function (capable of spontaneous activity)

5

where are renshaw cells located

anterior horns of spinal cord

6

where do renshaw cells receive collateral branches from

alpha motor neurons

7

what type of inhibition occurs when renshaw cells transmit inhibitory signals to surrounding motor neurons

lateral inhibition. enhances fluidity of limb movement

8

what type of inhibition occurs when renshaw cells transmit inhibitory signals to the same motor neuron

recurrent inhibition

9

what are muscle spindles innervated by

small gamma motor neurons (group 2 afferents)

10

what type of change do nuclear bags detect

rate of change in muscle length (dynamic change)

11

what type of change do nuclear chain fibers detect

static change

12

what are nuclear bag fibers innervated by

1a afferents and dynamic gamma efferents

13

what are nuclear chain fibers innervated by

group 2 afferents and static gamma efferents

14

describe dynamic stretch reflex

signals transmitted from primary nerve endings and elicited by rapid stretch or unstretch (opposes sudden changes in muscle length)

15

describe static reflex

transmitted by both primary and secondary endings and causes degree of muscle contraction to remain relatively constant

16

what does the muscle spindle over do for its function

prevents jerkiness of body movements (damping)

17

what does muscle stretch do to firing rate of type 1a afferent fibers

increases firing rate

18

describe flexor/withdrawal

flexion on ipsilateral side; extension on contralateral side

19

what motor areas generate a plan for movement

premotor and supplementary motor cortices

20

what creates the "motor image" of the total muscle movement that is to be performed

anterior part of premotor cortex

21

what part of the cortex programs complex motor sequences and is responsible for mental rehearsal for a movement

supplementary motor cortex

22

describe the signal from the posterior motor cortex

to primary motor cortex, the basal nuclei and thalamus, then back to primary motor cortex

23

define pyramidal system

tracks that pass through medullary pyramids

24

where do upper motor neurons originate for the pyramidal system

motor cortices

25

describe the medial activation system of the pyramidal system

innervate postural and girdle muscles

26

describe the lateral activation system of the pyramidal system

associated with distally located muscles used for fine movements

27

describe the nonspecific activating system of the pyramidal system

facilitate local reflex arcs

28

where does the rubrospinal tract originate

red nucleus

29

where does the rubrospinal tract decussate

midbrain

30

where does the rubrospinal tract descend

lateral funiculus

31

what is the function of the rubrospinal tract

closed related to cerebellar function

32

what occurs if there are lesions in the rubrospinal tract

impairment of distal arm and hand movement. intention tremors

33

where does the vestibulospinal tract descend

anterior funiculus

34

what does the vestibulospinal tract synapse with

LMNs to extensor muscles

35

what is the vestibulospinal tract primarily involved in

maintenance of upright posture

36

where does the reticulospinal tract descend

anterior portion of lateral funiculus

37

what is the reticulospinal tract thought to do

mediate larger movements of trunk and limbs that do not require balance or fine movements of upper limbs

38

describe the utricle

located in horizontal position and plays role in determining orientation of head when head is upright

39

describe the saccule

located in a vertical plane and signals head orientation when a person is lying down

40

what occurs when the stereo cilia of the macula bend toward the kinocilium

depolarization and excitation

41

what occurs when the sterocilia of the macula bend away from the kinocicium

hyper polarization and closure of channels

42

what divides the 2 hemispheres of the cerebellum

vermis

43

what is the oldest lobe of the cerebellum

flocculonodular

44

what is the role of the vermis (besides dividing hemispheres)

location for control functions for muscle movements of the axial body, neck, shoulders and hips

45

what is the role of the intermediate zone of the cerebellum

concerned with controlling muscle contractions in the distal portions of the upper and lower limbs, especially hands, feet, fingers and toes

46

what is the role of the lateral zone of the cerebellum

associated with cerebral cortex with planning of sequential motor movements

47

what are the transversely arranged narrow gyri located in the cortex of the cerebellum

folia

48

what type of ataxia occurs when lesions to dentate, emboli form and globose nuclei

extremity ataxia

49

where do the dentate nuclei, emboli form nuclei and globose nuclei project to

red nucleus

50

what are the dentate nuclei, emboli form nuclei and globose nuclei related to

limb musculature and fine manipulative movement

51

what type of ataxia occurs when there are lesions to the fastigial nuclei

trunk ataxia

52

where do the fibers of the fastigial nuclei project

reticular formation and vestibular nuclei

53

what are fastigial nuclei related to

postural activity and limb movements via reticulospinal and vestibulospinal tracts

54

what are the only excitatory cells in the cerebellar cortex

granular cells

55

where do the golgi cells, basket cells, and stellate cells project

golgi to granular cell bodies, basket to purkinje axon hillock and stellate to purkinje dendrites

56

what is the only output cell for the cerebellar cortex

purkinje cell

57

where do climbing fibers originate

medullary olives

58

what do climbing fibers play a role in

motor learning

59

where do mossy fibers originate

multiple centers in the brainstem and spinal cord

60

what do climbing fibers synapse with

purkinje cells

61

where do mossy fibers synapse

on granule cells in glomeruli

62

what type of spikes to climbing fibers have

complex

63

what type of spikes do mossy fibers have

simple

64

what is the neurotransmitter that purkinje cell axons use

GABA

65

what do purkinje cell axons modulate

output of cerebellum and provides synergy

66

what does the vestibulocerebellum consist of

flocculonodular lobes and vermis

67

what occurs if there is a loss of flocculonodular lobes

extreme disturbance of equilibrium and postural movements

68

what disorder occurs when movements overshoot their mark continuously

dysmetria

69

what disorder is described as the inability to perform rapid alternative movements

dysdiadochokinesia

70

what disorder is failure of progression in talking

dysarthria

71

what disorder is described as tremors of the eyeball

cerebellar nystagmus

72

what is the prince role of basal nuclei

work with corticospinal system to modulate thalamic output to the motor cortex to plan and execute smooth muscle movements

73

what is the putamen circuit used for

subconscious execution of learned patterns of movement

74

what is the caudate circuit used for

cognitive planning of sequential and parallel motor patterns

75

what neurons are destroyed in huntington's disease

GABA

76

what neurotransmitter is used to go from the substantia nigra to the caudate nucleus and putamen

dopamine

77

what neuron transmitter is used to go from the caudate nucleus and putamen to the globes pallidus and substantial nigra

GABA

78

what neurotransmitter is used to go from the cortex to the caudate nucleus and putamen

acetylcholine

79

what happens to motor activity in huntington's disease

it increases because the indirect pathway no longer has inhibitory influence on direct pathway

80

what are stimulating factors for sweating

stimulation of anterior hypothalamus-pre-optic area, cholinergic sympathetic nerve fibers and circulating epinephrine and norepinephrine

81

what are the principle areas of the brain that affect body temperature

anterior hypothalamic/pre-optic area and pre-optic area

82

what happens immediately after heating the anterior hypothalamic/pre-optic area

dilation of skin blood vessels over the entire body, profuse sweating over the entire body and inhibition of excess heat production

83

what are some causative factors for fevers

brain abnormalities, surgery in region of hypothalamus, prostaglandins and liposaccharide toxins

84

how does aspirin decrease the set point temperature

inhibiting cyclooxygenase which results in decrease production of prostaglandins

85

where do slow waves originate

interstitial cells of Cajal

86

what do slow waves excite

the appearance of intermittent spike potentials

87

when do spike potentials occur automatically

when resting membrane potential of GI smooth muscle becomes more positive than -40mv

88

what inhibits the secretion of gastrin

acid from stomach and somatostatin

89

what stimulates gastrin secretion

small peptides and aa in stomach lumen, dissension of stomach, vagal stimulation

90

where is gastrin secreted

G cells of antrum, duodenum and jejunum

91

what pathology is association with issues with gastrin

Zollinger-ellison syndrome

92

what stimulates CCK secretion

small peptides and aa, fatty acids and monoglycerides

93

what is the site of secretion for CCK

I cells of duodenum, jejunum and ileum

94

what stimulates the secretion of secretin

acid and fat in lumen of duodenum

95

what is the site of secretion for secretin

S cells of the duodenum, jejunum and ileum

96

what stimulates bicarbonate secretion

secretin

97

what is the only hormone released in release to protein, fat and carb

GIP

98

what is the site of secretion for K cells

duodenum and jejunum

99

what does GIP stimulate

insulin release

100

what is the major hormonal control feed back of the duodenum

CCK

101

composition fo saliva

high potassium ion and bicarbonate concentrations

102

when are potassium levels in saliva low

when it has the highest flow rate

103

where does the first stage of salivary secretion occur

acini

104

what does the first stage of salivary secretion contain

ptyalin (alpha-amylase)

105

where does the second stage of salivary secretion occur

salivary ducts

106

what is the secretion product of gastric secretions of parietal cells

HCl and intrinsic factor

107

what does the CN X innervate in the direct pathway of gastric secretions

parietal cells

108

what receptor does the direct pathway for gastric secretions use

Ach and muscarinic receptor

109

what does CN X innervate in the indirect gastric secretions

G cells

110

what is the neurotransmitter of the indirect pathway for gastric secretion

GRP

111

what is the second messenger on parietal cell for gastrin stimulation

IP3/ Ca++

112

what is the second messenger for histamine stimulation

cAMP

113

what does somatostatin inhibit

gastric H2 secretions

114

what is the indirect way that somatostatic inhibits gastric H2 secretions

inhibits release of histamine and gastrin

115

what does somatostatin bind to in the direct pathway for inhibition of gastric H2 secretions

binds to receptors on parietal cell that are coupled to adenyl cyclase via a Gi protein

116

what is the digestive enzyme for carbs

pancreatic amylase

117

what is the digest enzymes for fats

pancreatic lipase, cholesterol esterase, phospholipase

118

how does acetylcholien stimulate enzyme secretion

by acinar cells and potentates effect of secretin

119

what is the second messenger for cholecystokinin

IP3 and increased intracellular Ca++

120

what is the second messenger for secretin

cAMP

121

how is fructose absorbed in the small intestine

facilitated diffusion

122

where can phosphorylation of glucose be reversed

liver, renal and intestinal cells

123

what are the end products of the Krebs cycle

16 hydrogens, 2 TP, 4 CO2

124

where does oxidative phosphorylation occur

mitochondrial cristae

125

what is special about cytochrome A3

it can give up 2 electrons to oxygen and is located on inner membrane

126

what is the maximum efficiency for calories/mole glucose

66 percent

127

what is the pentose phosphate pathway mostly used for

synthesis of fats and other substances

128

how are chylomicrons transported to the venous system

via thoracic duct

129

what tissues removes chylomicrons

adipose tissue, skeletal muscle and heart

130

what lipoprotein (s) is synthesized in intestinal cells

chylomicrons

131

describe the concentrations for VLDLs

high concentrations of triglycerides and moderate amounts of cholesterol and phospholipids

132

describe the concentrations for LDLs

high concentrations of cholesterol and moderate concentration of phospholipids

133

describe the concentrations for HDLs

high concentrations of proteins and low concentration of cholesterol and fatty acids

134

what are the basic causes of atherosclerosis

increased LDLs and familial hypocholesterolemia (defective LDL receptors)