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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (81):
1

What is endomysium

connective tissue that wraps individual muscle fibers

2

What is perimysium

Connective tissue that wraps around multiple muscle fibers

3

What is a fasciculus or what are fasciculi

A bundle of muscle fibers wrapped in perimysium

4

What is epimysium

Connective tissue that wraps around multiple fasciculus

5

What are the fascial wrapping continuous with

tendons, periosteum, and other connective tissue structures

6

What is superficial fascia

subdermal loose connective tissue that contains blood vessels, fat, and nerves (reticular)

7

What is deep fascia

Thick connective tissue that forms various protective structures

8

What is an investing layer

fascia that surrounds muscle groups

9

What is intermuscular septa

Fascia that separates functional muscle groups

10

What is a bursa

A flattened sac located in a region where friction needs to be reduced between muscle/tendon and bone

11

What are synovial sheaths

bursae surrounding tendons

12

What are bursae made of

connective tissue and bursal fluid on the inside

13

What is bursitis

The swelling/inflammation of a bursa

14

what is a motor unit

muscle fibers controlled by a single motor neuron

15

What detects the stretch of a particular muscle to prevent over stretching/tearing

specialized sensory nerves such as Golgi tendon organs and muscle spindle fibers

16

If an axon innervates very few muscle fibers, will it have power or finesse in its contraction

finesse (think ocular muscles)

17

If an axon innervates many muscle fibers, will it have power or finesse in its contraction

Power (think latissima dorsi)

18

What is the origin and insertion of the latissimus dorsi

Spine of T6-L5, intertubercular groove

19

What muscle(s) does the Thoracodorsal nerve innervate

Latissimus Dorsi

20

What is the action of the Latissimus Dorsi

Extend, adduct, and medially rotate the humerus (handcuffs!)

21

What is the origin and insertion of the levator Scapulae

Origin: Transverse processes of C1-4
Insertion: Medial border of the scapula superior to the spine

22

What is the origin and insertion of the rhomboid minor

Origin: Spinous processes of C7-T1
insertion: medial border of scapula, at the level of the spine

23

What is the origin and insertion of the rhomboid major

Origin: Spinous processes of T2-5
insertion: Medial border of scapula, below level of the spine

24

What does the Dorsal scapular nerve innervate

Levator scapulae, rhomboid minor, and rhomboid major

25

What is the action of the rhomboids and levitator scapulae

Elevate, retract, and medially rotate the scapula

26

Where is the Dorsal scapular nerve located

It decends from C5 and passes deep to the rhomboids and levitator scapulae

27

What are the 7 muscles on the scapula that move the humerus

Deltoid, supraspinatus, infraspinatus, subscapularis, teres major, teres minor, triceps

28

What are the origins of the deltoid

Posterior deltoid: spine of the scapula, intermediate deltoid: acromion, anterior deltoid: lateral 1/3 of the clavicle

29

What is the insertion of the deltoid

deltoid tuberosity of the humerus

30

What does the axillary nerve innervate

deltoid and teres minor

31

Where is the axillary nerve located

It branches from the brachial plexus and passes through the quadrangular space.

32

What are the 4 borders of the quadrangular space

teres major and minor, humerus, and the long head of the triceps

33

What does SITS stand for

The rotator cuff muscles: supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis

34

What is the origin and insertion of the supraspinatus

Origin: supraspinous fossa
Insertion: greater tubercle of the humerus

35

what is the origin and insertion of the infraspinatus

Origin: infraspinous fossa
insertion: greater tubercle of the humerus

36

What is the origin and insertion of the Teres minor

Origin: lateral border of the scapula
Insertion: greater tubercle of the humerus

37

What is the origin and insertion of the subscapularis

Origin: subscapular fossa
Insertion: lesser tubercle of the humerus

38

What does the suprascapular nerve innervate

Supraspinatus, infraspinatus

39

Where is the suprascapular nerve located

It decends from C5, passes through the suprascapular notch under the transverse ligament, and passes into the infra/supraspinatus muscles

40

What does the upper subscapularis nerve innervate

The subscapularis

41

What does the lower subscapularis nerve innervate

The subscapularis and teres major

42

What is the most common pathology of the rotator cuff muscles

The suprasinatus gets inflamed, and the swelling makes it rub against the acromion and surrounding ligaments, leading to a tear

43

What is the origin and insertion of the teres major

Origin: Lateral border of the scapula
Insertion: intertubercular groove

44

What is the origin and insertion of the pectoralis major

Origin: medial 1/2 of the clavicle and upper 6 costal cartilages
Insertion: Bicipital groove on the humerus

45

What is the origin and insertion of the pectoralis minor

Origin: Ribs 3,4,5
Insertion: Coracoid process

46

What is the action of the pectoralis minor

protract,depress, and medial rotation of the scapular

47

What innervates the pectoralis minor

The medial pectoral n

48

What is the origin and insertion of the subclavius

Origin: first costal cartilage
Insertion: infer. groove of clavicle

49

What is the action of the subclavius

to depress and stabilize the clavicle

50

What is the innervation of the subclavius

n to subclavius (Haha, laaame)

51

What innervates the pectoralis Major

lateral and medial pectoral nn

52

where is the medial pectoral nerve located

It branches from the brachial plexus and passes through the minor into the major pec

53

What is the origin and insertion of the serratus anterior

Origin: upper 8 ribs
Insertion: medial border of the scapula

54

What does the long thoracic n innervate

The serratus anterior

55

What is the action of the serratus

protract and laterally rotate the scapula

56

Where is the long thoracic n located

it decends from C5,6,7 and passes under the clavicle to the serratus anterior

57

What is scapular winging

Weakness in either the rhomboids or serratus anterior that causes lateral or medial rotation, respectively.

58

What is the origin of the trapezius

Superior nuchal line, external occipital protuberance, nuchal ligament, spines of C7-T12

59

What is the insertion of the trapezius

Spine of the scapula (top), acromion, and lateral 1/3 of the clavicle (top)

60

What does the accessory n (CN XI) innervate?

The sternocleidomastoid and the trapezius

61

What is the action of the trapezius on the scapula

elevation, depression, retraction, lateral rotation

62

Where is the accessory n located

It decends from the base of the skull, out of the posterior triangle of the neck, and passes down the side of the neck deep to the trapezius

63

What are the 3 joint types

Fibrous, cartilaginous, and synovial

64

What are the three types of fibrous joints

Syndesmoses, Sutures, and Gomphosis

65

What are the 2 types of cartilaginous joints

Symphysis and synchondrosis

66

What are the 5 key characteristics of a synovial joint

1. articulating ends are covered in hyaline cartilage. 2. synovial space between the bones and within the joint capsule
3. articular capsule consisting of CT that is continuous with the periosteum of the bones
4. Synovial membrane on inner lining of joint capsule that creates a lubricating synovial fluid
5. occasionally there is a fibrocartilage articulating disc or meniscus between the bones

67

What type of joint is formed if the interzonal mesenchyme dies off

As it dies, it signals the formation of hyaline cartilage, and forms a synovial joint

68

What type of joint it formed if mesenchyme turns into chondrocytes?

Chondrocytes are cartilage forming cells, so it become a cartilaginous joint

69

What type of joint is formed if mesenchyme turns into fibroblasts

Fibroblasts make connective tissue, so a fibrous joint will form.

70

Which muscles retract the scapula

Traps, rhomboids, and lev. scap

71

Which muscles protract the scapula

Pec. minor and serratus anterior

72

Which muscles elevate the scapula

Trap, rhomboids, and lev. scap

73

Which muscles depress the scapula

Trap and pec. minor

74

Which muscles laterally rotate the scapula

Trap and serratus anterior

75

Which muscles medially rotate the scapula

Rhomboids, lev scap, and pec. minor

76

Which muscles flex the humerus

Pec. major, deltoid, biceps br. and corocobrachius

77

Which muscles extend the humerus

Latissimus, teres major, deltoid, and triceps brac.

78

Which muscles abduct the humerus

Deltoid and supraspinatus

79

Which muscles adduct the the humerus

Pec major, latissimus, teres major, and corocobrac.

80

Which muscles medially rotate the humerus

Pec major, latissimus, teres major, deltoid, and subscapular

81

Which muscles laterally rotate the humerus

Deltoid, infraspinatus, and teres minor