Lecture 7 Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Anatomy I > Lecture 7 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 7 Deck (69):
1

What are the 8 cranial bones

parietal (2), temporal (2), frontal, occipital, ethmoid, sphenoid

2

What are the 14 facial bones

Maxilla (2), Zygomatic (2), Nasal (2), Palantine (2), Lacrimal (2), Inferior Nasal Concha (2), Vomer, Mandible

3

What are the 26 bones of the vertebral column

7 cervical vertebrae, 12 thoracic vertebrae, 5 lumbar vertebrae, 1 sacrum (5 fused segments) 1 coccyx (3-5 fused segments)

4

What tissue layer do somites form from

mesoderm

5

Why do different areas of the body associate with different levels of the spinal cord

The formation of somites

6

What are the 3 parts of a somite

sclerotome, dermatome, and myotome

7

What structure(s) does the sclerotome form

vertebrae and ribs

8

What structure(s) does the dermatome form

dermis of the skin

9

What structure(s) does the myotome form

Muscles of the back and limbs

10

How do sclerotome cells migrate to form vertebrae

They migrate medially to surround the neural tube and notochord, forming the vertebral foramen and body

11

What structure do the notochord eventually become

nucleus pulposus

12

What does the fusion of dense and loose tissues of adjacent somites form

The intersegmental vertebra

13

What are the 3 steps in endochondral ossification of vertebrae

1. Mesoderm differentiates into cartilage models of bones 2. Chondrification around the neural tube 3. endochondral ossification replaces cartilage with bone

14

What do primary ossification centers form

They form vertebral parts that fuse between ages 3-5 yrs

15

What do secondary ossification centers form

They form on vertebral periphery in puberty

16

What permits growth in size of vertebrae

cartilage pates between ossification centers

17

What is the primary curvature of the spine

The primary curvature of the spine is kyphosis, and is present during the fetal life.

18

What is the secondary curvature of the spine

The secondary curvature of the spine is lordosis, and develops after birth from sitting, holding the head up, walking, etc

19

What type of curve does each part of the spine have

Kyphotic: Thoracic, sacral
Lordotic: Cervical, Lumbar

20

What is the body of a vertebra

anterior part that bears most of the weight

21

What is the vertebral foramen

space enclosed by the vertebral arch

22

What is the vertebral canal

column of vertebral foramina which enclose the spinal cord

23

What forms the spinous processes

fusion of the lamina

24

What forms the transverse processes

fusion of lamina and pedicle

25

What are mammillary processes

little bumps on the superior articular processes that serve as an attachment for the multifidus, and are only present in lumbar vertebrae

26

What do the superior and inferior articular processes form

zygopophyseal joint AKA facet joint

27

Which vertebral regions have the widest range of motion

In order of decreasing motion: Cervical, lumbar, thoracic

28

What is the unique feature of each vertebra type

Cervical: transverse foramina, bifid S.P.
Thoracic: costal facets, long pointy S.P.
Lumbar: mammillary processes, stout horizontal SP

29

Which vertebrae have the largest body

In order of decreasing size: Lumbar, thoracic, cervical

30

What are the main movements of cervical vertebrae

Flexion/extension, rotation, lateral flexion (abduction)

31

What are the main movements of thoracic vertebrae

Rotation and lateral flexion (abduction)

32

What are the main movements of lumbar vertebrae

Flexion and extension

33

What bones form the sacrum

Fusion of the 5 sacral vertebrae after 20 years

34

What are the sacral crest

The median sacral crest runs down the center and is formed from by the fusion of SP's, and the lateral sacral crests are formed by the TSP's

35

What is the function of sacral canal

It serves as a passage for spinal nerves and ends at the hiatus

36

What is the function of the sacral foramina

The anterior and posterior foramina convey the anterior and posterior rami of sacral nerves

37

What is the coccyx

3-5 small fused vertebrae that serve as origin for pelvic muscles and ligaments

38

What is the sacrococcygeal symphysis

a fibrocartilaginous joint between the sacrum and coccyx

39

What is the intervertebral joint

symphysis joint between vertebral bodies

40

What is the annulus fibrosis

crisscross pattern of collagenous fibers that interconnect the lips of the vertebrae

41

What is the nucleus pulposus

gelatinous center of intervertebral joint that provides shock absorption

42

From whence does the nucleus pulposus derive structural stability

Proteoglycans that absorb water. The water can be squeezed out to allow for compression without damaging the tissue.

43

What is a herniated disc

When the nucleus pulposus pushes through the annulus and pinches the outgoing spinal nerve against the articular processes within the intervertebral foramen.

44

Do hernias always cause pain

Nope! Even if there is a herniated disc and back pain, the hernia is not necessarily the cause

45

What is a facet joint

Zygapophyseal joints are synovial joints that connect vertebral arches

46

What is the supraspinous ligament

ligament that joins the tips of SP's

47

What is the interspinous ligament

ligament that spans between the SP's

48

What is the ligamentum flavum

elastic CT that connects lamina. It helps extend the vertebral column.

49

Where are the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments located

They are affixed to the anterior and posterior surfaces of the vertebral bodies, respectively

50

What is the function of the anterior and posterior longitudinal ligaments

They add support to the intervertebral joints

51

What is the atlas

C1. It has no vertebral body

52

What is the axis

C2. It has the dens (odontoid process) which is formed by the fusion of the bodies from C1 and C2

53

What is the atlanto-axial joint

pivot joint formed between the dens and anterior arch of the atlas.

54

What is the transverse ligament

It holds the dens against the anterior arch

55

Where are the alar and apical ligaments

They attach the dens to the margin of the magnum foramen and limit rotational movement

56

What is the atlanto-occipital joint

superior articular processes of C1 articulate with occipital condyles of the skull. It permits flexion and extension

57

Where is the posterior atlanto-occipital ligament (PAO)

ligament that spans from margin of magnum foramen to the posterior arch of C1.

58

What is a potential pathology of the PAO?

It could cause cervicogenic headaches

59

What are the suboccipital muscles

Rectus Capitis posterior Major and Minor, Inferior and Superior Obliques

60

What muscle attaches to the PAO

Rectus Capitis Posterior Minor

61

What does the head of the rib do

Articulates with vertebral bodies

62

What is the tubercle of the rib

It is the constotransverse articular facet

63

What does the sternal end of the rib do

attaches to costal cartilage

64

What does the costal groove do

Serves as channel for intercostal vessels and nerve

65

Where are costovertebral articulations

synovial joints on the body and TVP of thoracic vertebrae with ribs

66

What is the sternal angle

Where the manubrium attaches to the body of the sternum. It is a great landmark for rib 2

67

What are the parts of the sternum

Manubrium, sternal body, and xiphoid process

68

How does the sternum connect to the ribs

Via costal cartilage

69

What is the hyoid bone

Bone in the anterior neck that is anchored by muscles of speech and swallowing. It is the only bone not attached directly to another bone.