Lecture 8 Flashcards Preview

Musculoskeletal Anatomy I > Lecture 8 > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 8 Deck (58):
1

What are the 5 main functions of core muscles

Balance/posture, Valsalva, proprioception, respiration, circulation

2

Where is the erector spinae Spinalis located

Interconnects thoracic and cervical spinous processes. most medial of the erector spinae

3

Where is the erector spinae Longissimus located

Inserts onto TVP and angles of ribs (capitis protion inserts onto mastoid process) Middle of erector spinae

4

Where is the erector spinae Iliocostalis located

From the iliac crest up to the ribs. Most lateral of erector spinae

5

Where is the semispinalis located

In the upper 1/2 of the vertebral column, they span 5-8 vertebrae from SP to TVP

6

Where is the multifidus located

They span 3-4 vertebrae from SP to TVP and is thickest over sacrum

7

Where are the rotatores located

They span 1-2 vertebrae SP to TVP throughout the spine

8

Where are the intertransverse and interspinous muscles located

They span TVP to TVP and SP to SP, respectively

9

Where is the splenius capitis located

Origin: Lower portion of nuchal ligament and SP C3-T3
Insertion: Superior nuchal line and mastoid processes

10

Where is the splenius cervicis located

Origin: SP T3-T6
Insertion: TVP C2-C4

11

What is the action of the Splenius

Acting bilaterally they extend the head and neck. unilaterally, they rotate and laterally bend head and neck.

12

What is the action of the erector spinae muscles

Bilaterally: stabilize and extend vertebral column
Unilaterally: ipsilaterally side-bend and rotate vertebral column

13

What is the action of the transversospinalis muscles

Bilaterally: extend vertebral column and maintain posture
unilaterally: side bending of the vertebral column

14

What is the action of the rotatores

They only help rotate vertebral segments because they are too short to do anything else

15

What is the innervation of the deep back muscles

Posterior rami of spinal nerves

16

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the inferior oblique

O: Spine of axis
I: TVP of Atlas
A: ipsilateral rotation of the head

17

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the superior oblique

O: TVP of atlas
I: Occiput
A: Extend head

18

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the rectus capitis posterior major

O: Spine of axis
I: Occiput
A: Extend and rotate head

19

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the rectus capitis posterior minor

O: Posterior tubercle of atlas
I: Occiput
A: Extend head

20

What is the innervation of the suboccipital muscles

Posterior ramus of C1 (a purely motor nerve)

21

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the rectus capitis anterior and lateralis

O: Atlas TVP
I: occiput
A: flex and laterally flex head, stabilize atlanto occipital joint

22

What is the origin, insertion, and action of the longus colli and capitis

O: Lower cervical bodies and TVP's
I: Upper cervical bodies, TVP's, and the occiput
A: flex head, neck

23

What is the innervation of anterior neck muscles

C1-4

24

What is a common pathology of the anterior neck muscles

They are often damaged in motor vehicle accidents

25

What is the origin of the scalenes

TVP's

26

What is the insertion of the scalenes

Anterior and middle insert on the first rib, Lateral on the second rib

27

What is the action of the scalenes

Laterally flex the neck, raise the ribs

28

What is the innervation of the scalenes

Lower cervical nerves

29

What is the origin and insertion of the SCM

O: Manubrium, clavical
I: mastoid process

30

What is the action of the SCM

Ipsilateral: flex head
Contralateral: Rotate head unilaterally and flex head bilaterally

31

What is torticollis

Spasm of the SCM. It's treated with physical medicine, and if all else fails, it is surgically severed

32

What is the action of the external intercostals

aid in inspiration by lifting ribs

33

What is the action of the internal intercostals

Fix ribs in place, help with precise contractions for singing or speaking

34

What is the attachment of the intercostals

Both attach from the inferior border of a rib to the superior border of the rib below it

35

What is the innervation of the intercostals

Ventral rami of Nerves T1-T12 leave the intervertebral foramina and travel along the costal grooves

36

What happens if abdominal muscles are slow to engage

The lumbar muscles end up getting overworked, and this can cause chronic low back pain

37

What supports the lumbar spine

The coordinate action of transversus abdominis and multifidus

38

What are the attachments of the rectus abdominis

Superior: xiophoid process and cartilage of ribs 5-7
Inferior: pubic crest and pubic symphysis

39

What is the innervation of the rectus and transversus abdominus, and the externa and internal obliques

Lower 6 intercostal nerves, the internal obliques are also innervated by ventral rami of L1

40

What is the action of the rectus abdominis

Compresses abdominal content and flexes vertebral column

41

What are the attachments of the external obliques

Superior: Ribs 5-12
Inferior: Anterior portion of iliac crest
anterior: abdominal aponeurosis and linea alba

42

What is the action of the external obliques

compress abdominal wall, flex vertebral column. Unilaterally, they ipsilaterally flex and contralaterally rotate vertebral column

43

What are the attachments of the internal obliques

Superior: Cartilage of lower 3 ribs
Inferior: Iliac crest and inguinal ligamnet
Anterior: abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
posterior: thoracolumbar fascia

44

What is the action of the internal obliques

Compress abdominal contents and flex vertebral column. Unilaterally, it ipsilaterally flexes and contra laterally rotates the vertebral column

45

What are the attachments of the transverse abdominis

Superior: Cartilage of lower 6 ribs
Inferior: iliac crest and inguinal ligament
Anterior: Abdominal aponeurosis to linea alba
Posterior: thoracolumbar fascia

46

What is the action of the transverse abdomens

Compress abdominal contents

47

What are the attachments of the quadratus lumborum

Superior: 12th rib and TVP L1-5
Inferior: iliac crest and iliolumbar ligament

48

What is the innervation of the quadratus lumborum

T12 and L1-4 spinal nerves

49

What is the action of the quadratus lumborum

Unilaterally: Laterally flex lumbar spine and elevate hip
Bilaterally: extend vertebral column and fix 12th rib during respiration

50

What are the attachments of the iliopsoas

Superior: TVP's and vertebral bodies of L1-5 (psoas major) and iliac fossa (iliacus)
Inferior: lessor trochanter of femur

51

What is the action of the iliopsoas

Flex the hips or lumbar spine

52

What is the innervation of the iliopsoas

L1,2 and femoral nerve

53

What nerves pass under and through the psoas

Tons. Femoral, genitofemoral, and lateral femoral cutaneous.

54

What are the attachments of the thoracic diaphragm

Muscle fibers radiate from a central tendon to attach peripherally to the inner surface of lower 6 ribs, upper 3 lumbar vertebrae and the xiphoid process

55

What is the action of the thoracic diaphragm

Contractions flatten to compress the abdominal contents and increase the volume of the thorax

56

What are the 2 main functions of the diaphragm

Contractions increase the volume of thorax to decrease the pressure. This draws air into the lungs and assists with lymphatic venous return

57

What are 4 of the pelvic floor muscles

Coccygeus, Levator ani which consists of pubococcgeus, puborectalis, and iliococcygeus

58

What is the function of the pelvic floor muscles

Support pelvic viscera and provide sphincter-like action to the urethral, vaginal, and anal canals