what are the two types of sound production in speech?
phonotory source (periodic)
supraglottal source (aperiodic)
What is the phonatory source for sound production in speech?
air pressure/airflow and muscular forces cause the coval folds to vibrate
What is the supraglottal source for sound production in speech?
when air pressure builds up behind vocal tract closures and is released (stops)
when air is forced through narrow constrictions (fricatves)
Wher are the vocal folds located?
What does the larynx do?
controls airflow in adn out of the lungs, protecting the airway
portects during swallowing
increses intrathoracic pressure during exertion, coughing, and other bodily functions
provides a sound source for speech
What are the fundamental frequencies for men, women and children?
men ~100 Hz
women ~200 Hz
children ~300 Hz
What is the myoelsastic aerodynamic theory?
myo: muscles lightly adduct the vocal folds and establish levels of tension adn elasticity within the vocal folds
elasticity: allows vocal folds to be stretched and then return to their muscularily dertermined position in each cycle
aerodynamic; subglotttal pressure from the lungs, wich acts as a force to oen; and iarflow (bernouli orce) wich acts as a force to close
During phonation the muscularly determined position is:
open or closed?
When are the vocal folds opened/ abducted?
when phonation is OVER and teh speaker takes a breath
What is the cover-body model of vocal folds?
cover: mucous membrane connective tissue known as the epithelium and lamina propria (there is three layers of this)
Body: muscle (stiff) they thyroarytenoid muscle (has two parts)
the body and the cover have different bibratory porperties
Which muscles determine how tightly the body adn cover are connected in phonation?
intrnsic laryngeal muscles
Where is the hyoid bone located?
between the jaw and the larynx
What is the epiglottis?
a flexible cortilage that covers the larynx during swallowing
What does the thyroid cartilage do?
encloses the larynx anteriorly
What does the cricoid cartilage do?
it is the top ring of the tracha and supports the arytenoids
What are the arytenoid cartilages?
paired pyramidal structures the vocal processes run forward to attach to the vocal folds and the muscular porcesses run laterally on the posterior surface adn provide attachment points for some important muscles
Where are the vocal folds located?
anteroposteriorly they runf from the thyroid cartilage to the arytenoid cartilages
between them in an enclosed space along the center line is the glottis
they are superior to the trachea
they are inferior to the false ventricular vocal folds and laryngeal ventricle
What are teh parts of the vocal folds?
vocal processes of the arytenoid cartilages
the vocal ligament
the thyroarytenoid muscle
teh superficial mucous membrane
Are the vocal folds adducted or abducted when the are in rest position?
Are the vocal folds adducted or abducted when there is phonation or voiced sounds?
what muscle is used to abduct the vocal folds?
the PCA- posterior cricoarytenoid muscles
Which muscles adduct the vocal folds?
The transverse and oblique Interarytenoid (IA)
lateral cricoarytenoid muscles (LCA)
What is needed for phonation?
That the subglottal pressure is greater than teh pressure above teh vocal folds
Which muscles help with the myo part of the myoelastic aerodynamic theory and lightly adducte the vocal folds?
How are the vocal folds made less massive adn more tense?
stretching the cricothyroid (CT) and thinning the vocal folds and increasing the f0 (fundamental frequency)
what are the attachments of the cricothyroid muscles?
cricoid ring at teh anterior adn lateral margins
thyroid cartilage at the inferior edge
How is the larynx raised?
the suprahoid muscles contract
tension incrases in the conus elasticus
fundamental frequency increases
How is the larynx lowered?
the infrahyoid muscles contrac- especially the sternohyoid
reduction of tension in teh conus elasticus
fundamental frequency decreases