Lectures 8 and 9 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lectures 8 and 9 Deck (49):
1

Which Resonant Consonants or Sonorants are similare to vowels?

 

nasals

liquids

glides

2

What are Non-Resonant Consonants or Obstruents? 

 

Stops

Fricatives

Affricates

3

What are characteristics of Resonant Consonants? 

 

Free airflow, articulation shapes vocal-tract cavities

characterized mainly by formant frequencies

all are voiced- having a periodic laryneal source

4

What are characteristics of no-resonant consonants or obsturents? 

blocked or restricted airflow

have aperiodic sounds sources in the upper vocal tract

can be voiced or voiceless

5

What is the sound sorce for a voiced consonant? 

periodic laryngeal source

6

What is the sound source for voiceless consonants? 

supraglottal noise sources

aperiodic laryngeal source

7

What are the sound sources in obsturents? 

stops bursts

frication

8

What is the sound source for voiced obstruents? 

periodic and aperiodic sources

9

What are examples of resonoant consonatns (sonorants)? 

 

apporoximants --> liquids --> /r/, /l/

apporximants --> glides --> /w/, /j/ 

10

Is the formant transition faster or slower for vowels? 

faster

11

When do consonants occur? 

on periphery: next to vowles but cannot take their place

12

What do vowels form for a word? 

the nucleus of the word

13

What is the productio of glide [j] similar to? 

[i]

14

What is the production of glide [j]? 

high, front tongue position

genioglossus active

risorius and buccinator active also

15

What are the formant values for [j]? 

low F1

High F2

16

What is glide [w] similar to? 

[u]

17

What is the production of [w]? 

high, back tongue position, rounded lips

styloglossus and orbicularis oris active

18

What are the formant volues for [w]? 

Low F1

Low F2

19

What is the position for [l]? 

tongue-tip contact with the alveolar ridge: the sides of the tongue are doewn: ther eis a lateral emission of air

20

What is the position of [r]?

retroflexed (tongue tip bent back)

often a lip is rounded

21

What are the acoustics of [l], [r] ? (evident in F2 and F3) 

F3 low for [r]

F3 level for {l}

22

Are most speech sounds oral or nasal? 

oral

23

Can liquids function as syllable nuclei? 

yes

24

25

What happens with oral soudns? 

VP port is closed

levator palatini muscle is active 

possible contraction of superior constrictor and uvular muscle

26

What happens for nasal sounds? 

levator palatini muscle is relaxed 

palatoglussus muscle may actively lower velum as well as palatopharyngeus

27

Where are nasal sounds blocked? Same for places of articulation for stops

at the lips

at the alveolar ridge

at the soft palate

28

When the VP port is open what kind of resonant cavity does this create? 

large cavity

29

What is the F1 that is sometimes called a nasal murmur? 

250-500 Hz

30

Where can non-resonant consonants - fricatives be produced? 

labiodental

linguadental

alveolar

postalveolar

31

What happens for labiodental fircatives? 

lower lip approximates upper incisors

obicularis oris ingerior is active

32

What happens for lingua-dental fricatives? 

tongue tip apporximates upper incisors

superior lontitudinal tonge muscles are active

33

What happens with alveolar fricatives? 

tongue forms constriction at alveolar ridge

air flows thorugh midline groove of tongue against teeth

short anterior cavity emphasizes high frequencies 

34

postalveolar fircatives

tongue forms groove in alveolarpalatal region

lips are often rounded

longer anterior cavity emphasizes lower frequencies

35

What are high frequencies emphasized for? 

alveolar fricatives

36

what are lower frequencies emphasized for? 

alveopalatal fricatives

37

what happens with a glottal fricative? 

no supraglottal constriction

involves turgulent noise at the glottis

may be voiced

cocal tract shape depends on the vowel that follows it

38

How are stops produced? 

complete articulatory closure in oral cabity

VP port is closed 

the intraoral pressure rises during the closure

intraoral pressure drops at the release

oral release yeilds a transient noise sourece, also called a release burst

39

What happens for bilabial stops? 

orbicularis oris used for lip closure

40

what happens for alveolar stops? 

superior longitudinal muscle elevates the tongue tip

41

What happens for velar stops? 

styloglossus and palatoglossus muscles raise tongue dorwum

hylohyoid raises floor of oral cavity

contact is velor or palatal depending on vowel context

42

glottal stop: 

vocal folds tightly approximated

43

How are the places of stop articulation indicated? 

frequency rage of most instense portion of release burst: 

bilabials, low frequencies

alveolar stops: higher frequencies 

velar stops: burst frequencies depend on following vowel 

F2 fransition to/from the following/precedign vowel

as for vowels, F2 relates to tongue position in oral cavity

F2 transition refelcts placement of following vowel 

44

how are syllable-initial stops mainly differentiated? 

Voice Onset Time (VOT): this is the tim between stop release and phonation onset

45

What are the three categories VOT? 

voicing lead: voicing begins before stop release

zero onset/short-lag: voicing begins at or very shorltly after stop release 

long-lag VOT: voicing begins well after release

46

What happens during a voicing lead? 

vocal folds apporximated thougout stop closure 

phonation occurs during stop closure

47

What happens during short-lag? 

vocal folds adducted by the time the stop is released

silent closure; phonation begins at rlease or just after

 

48

What happens during long-lag? 

vocal folds adduct after teh stop is released

voicing is delayed; the stop is aspirated

49