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Flashcards in Lecture 2 Deck (49):
1

What type of prevention is one that attempts to eliminate risk factors for disease?

Primary

2

What type of prevention is one that focuses on screening tests for diseases and is usually performed when the patient is asymptomatic?

Secondary

3

What type of prevention are vaccinations?

Primary

4

What type of prevention is a Pap smear?

Secondary

5

What women can receive the HPV vaccine?

Women 26 and younger

6

What is the most commonly reported bacterial STD in the US?

Chlamydia trachomatis

7

What are 5 risk factors for STDs?

History of multiple sex partners
Sexual partner with multiple sexual contacts
Sexual contact with individuals w/ culture-proved STD
History of repeated STDs
Attendance at clinic for STDs

8

When should bone mineral density (BMD) be tested?

All postmenopausal women starting at age 65
Perform in younger postmenopausal women at risk for osteoporosis

9

A postmenopausal women under _____ pounds should have a bone density screening.

127

10

What are some additional factors that would cause a postmenopausal women under age 65 for need bone density screening?

Current smoker
History of hip fracture
Alcoholism
Rheumatoid arthritis
fragility fracture history

11

When should TSH be tested?

Every 5 years starting at age 50 in women without risk factors

12

When should lipid panels be tested?

With risk factors- every 5 years
Without risk factors- begin at age 65

13

What are the two major screening examinations for breast cancer?

Clinical breast examiniation
Screenign mammography

14

When should women get an annual clinical breast exam?

Age 40 years and older

15

Which age group should get a clinical breast exam every 1-3 years?

Age 20-39

16

When do women start getting annual screening mammography?

Age 40

17

What age group should get a pap smear every 3 years with cytology?

Ages 21-29

18

What women should get pap smear screening every 3 years with cytology every 5 years with cytology and CPV testing?

Ages 30-65

19

Should women over age 65 get a pap smear?

No if there is adequate negative prior screening (three consecutive negative cytology or 2 consecutive negative co-tests) and no history of CIN 2 or greater within the last 20 years

20

If a women over aged 65 has a new sex partner but has never had an abnormal pap should a new one be done?

NO

21

How long after having CIN2, CIN3, adenocarcinoma insitu should a women continue screening?

20 years after spontaneous regression or appropriate management

22

When is colorectal cancer screening recommended?

All women at average risk starting at age 50 and every 10 years

23

What type of ethics is care based on the character of the physician facilitated by qualities of character such as trustworthiness, prudence, fairness, fortitude, temperance, integrity, self-effacement, and compassion?

Virtue-based ethics

24

What type ethics is care based on previous cases and the accumulated scientific knowledge of them, understand that this may chance with new info?

Case-based ethics

25

What is ethics based upon shared values, goals, ideals of community rather than the individual?

communitarian ethics

26

What is ethics based in quality of care for men and women and the right of women

Feminist ethics

27

What type of ethics state that good decision result from character traits such as sympathy, compassion, fidelity, love, and friendship inherent in interpersonal relationships?

Care ethics?

28

What type of ethics is a systematic approach based on four principles: autonomy, beneficence, nonmaleficence, and justice?

Principle-based ethics

29

What are the six steps in the decision making process?

1 Identify the decision makers
2 Collect data
3 Identify and evaluate all medically appropriate management options
4 Systematically evaluate these options
5 Identify ethical conflicts and set priorities then select the option that can be best justified
6 Reevaluate the decision after it is acted on based on clinical outcomes

30

Who's responsibility is informed consent?

The physician, it can't be delegated to others

31

what is an example of medical liability action?

A lawsuit

32

What is an undesirable outcome irrespective of the quality of care provided?

Medical maloccurrence

33

What is an outcome that has resulted from negligence (care below standard of care)?

Medical malpractice

34

What is the most common age of menopause?

51-52

35

What glands are located at approx 5 and 7 o'clock

Bartholin's glands

36

What glands are periurthral and located at 11 and 2 o'clock?

Skene's glands

37

What are the two types of speculums?

Pederson and Graves

38

Which speculum is better for parous women. It has wider blades and is higher and curved on the sides.

Graves

39

What speculum is best for nulliparous and postmenopausal women. Flat narrow blades with a very small curve on the sides.

Pederson

40

What are the three position the uterus can be in the long axis?

Anteverted
Midposition
Retroverted

41

What are the two position in the shorter axis that a uterus can be in?

Anteflexed
Retroflexed

42

What is a term for the ovaries, fallopian tubes, and support structures?

Adnexa

43

_________ is the proportion of affected individuals that test positive on the screening test.

Sensitivity

44

_________ is the proportion of unaffected individuals that test negative on the screening test.

Specificity

45

What causes syphilis?

treponema pallidium

46

What is a normal T score?

Greater than or equal to 1

47

What is an osteopenic T score

Between -1 and -2.5

48

What is an osteoporotic T score

Less than -2.5

49

When should pt's be screened for DM? What is the favored diagnostic test?

Age 45 and every 3 years thereafter
HbA1c