Flashcards in Lecture 5 Deck (68):
To be diagnosed with PMS, need 1 symptoms in 5 days pre-menses for how many cycles?
When are PMDD symptoms absent?
Week post menses
What are 4 main somatic symptoms of PMS?
Bloating, mastodynia, HA, swelling
What are three affective symptoms of PMS?
Irritable, angry outbursts, moodiness
When are symptoms relieved with PMS?
Within 4 days of menses
What are some core symptoms of PMDD?
Marked depression, marked anxiety, sudden tearfulness/ sadness, increased interpersonal conflicts or persistent & marked anger or irritability
What is the gold standard for treatment of PMDD?
What are some common meds for PMS?
NSAIDs, spironolactone (diuretic), ovulation suppression (OCPs, danazol (blocks all hormones- become male like) GnRH agoinst)
What are 3 common SSRIs prescribed for PMDD?
Fluoxetine (Prozac), Sertraline (Zoloft), Paraxetine (Paxil)
What are some ADRs associated with SSRIs for treatment of PMDD?
GI upset, insomnia, sexual dysfunction, wt gain, increased nervousness
What is transition time to non-reproductive years prior to menopause?
What is the pernmanet cessation of menses. 12 consecutive months w/o menses. Change in follicular phase, luteal phase constant.
Under what age is premature ovarian failure considered?
Under 40 years old
What is the primary hormone in menopause?
What hormone becomes higher with menopause?
What does estrone produce?
androstenedione & testosterone
What do bisphosphonates do? (ex- alendronate, risedronate)
Inhibit osteoclastic activity
What do SERMS (selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene) do?
nhibit bone resorption & turnover.
What is a a precaution with bisphosphonates?
Sit up and don't eat for at least 30 minutes after
What can St. John's wort work to help?
Vasomotor symptoms, depression
What 2 other supplements can help with vasomotor symptoms of menopause?
If an individual has a uterus, what do they need to be on for hormonal replacement?
Progesterone and estrogen
What are some contraindications for estrogen therapy?
CVA, thromboembolic disease, undiagnosed genital bleeding, biliary tract disorder, known estrogen dependent tumor
Where are the majority of breast cancers found?
In outer, upper quadrants
Higher risk of cancer with Menarche <___ years
12 years old
Menopause > ___ increases risk of breast cancer?
55 years old
No IUP or IUP > ____ year old increases risk of breast cancer.
Why do you preferable do the CBE during the follicular phase?
Estrogen dominant cycle, can then compare with mass in other phase
Which nodes do you check on a CBE?
axillary, epitrochlear, supraclavicular
What are the two types of mammography and what is the difference?
Screening vs. diagnostic
Screening if for an individual with no mass
How many views on done on screening mammogram?
4 views (2 on each)
What are 2 other things they can do with diagnostic mammography?
Compress more, and magnify
What are the three types of mastalgia?
Cyclic, non-cyclic & extra-mammary
What are some Rx for mastalgia?
weight loss, less caffeine
What are some Meds for mastalgia?
Depo-provera (progesterone only)
Bronmocriptine & lisuride
SERMS (off-label tamoxifen, raloxifen)
What does nonspontaneous, nonbloody & B/L breast discharge indicate?
Ductal ectasia (fibrocystic changes)
What does purulent nipple discharge indicate?
What meds can cause milky discharge?
What does bloody, unilateral nipple discharge indicate?
Intraductal CA, invasive ductal CA, papilloma (benign)
What are some symptoms of a prolactinoma?
HA, diplopia, vision change,
What are two causes of hyperprolactinemia?
Tumor in pituitary or tumor secreting prolactin.
If prolactin is elevated what do you do?
MRI sella turcica along with visual fields
What is dense epithelial & fibroblastic tissue: encapsulated, solid, round, mobile & rubbery often found in adolescents and young women?
What is inc’d fibrosis w/in lobule along w/compression & distortion epithelium?
What is a benign disease that is proliferative w/out atypia. >2 2 cell ayers above basement membrane.
What is neoadjuvant chemo ?
Chemo used to shrink mass before it is removed
After initial treatment how often are women seen by gyn?
First 2 years- 3-6 months
3rd year and beyond see annually
What stage of breast cancer do you: mastectomy or BCT w/ or w/out irradiation
What stage of breast cancer do you: surgery local control, chemo +/or hormonal
What stage of breast cancer do you: modified radical or or BCT w/irradiation, axillary node, + chemo, + tamoxifen, + neoadjuvant chemo (try to shrink mass with chemo before you go to remove mass), radiation supraclavicular LN + chest wall & breast (inflammatory type)
What stage of breast cancer do you: mastectomy or BCT w/or w/out irradiation, sentinel node/axillary node, + chemo.
What stage of breast cancer do you: modified radical or or BCT w/irradiation, axillary node, + chemo, + tamoxifen, radiation supraclavicular LN (+ 4 LN) + chest wall?
What is the only med approved by the FDA to treat mastalgia?
What are the two types of carcinoma in situ?
Lobular carcinoma in situ (LCIS)
Ductal carinoma in situi (DCIS)
What is the single largest risk factor for development cancer?
Age- Over 50
If ER positive or negative breast cancer easier to treat?
ER positive- can attack estrogen receptors
Is Her2/neu positive good or bad?
What is normal cyclic symptoms associated with ovulation which do not interfere w/ the patient's daily routine?
What are the most common somatic symptoms that occur with PMS?
Abdominal bloating and fatigue
What is the term for breast pain and swelling?
What is the most common behavioral symptoms of PMS?
What is the current theory for what causes of the basis of PMDD?
What 2 supplements have shown to decrease symptoms of PMS and PMDD?
carbonate and magnesium
What are the 4 FDA approved drugs for PMDD?
Fluoxetine (Prozac), sertraline (Zoloft), paroxetine (Paxil), and drospirenone/ ethinyl estradiol
What is the time period during which the changes of menopause occur
The plasma concentration of _______ begin to increase several years in advance of actual menopause.
What is usually the first physical manifestation of decreased ovarian function