Lecture 2-spinal cord Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 2-spinal cord Deck (63)
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1

what are the boundaries of the spinal cord?

top/rostral/superior:
-foramen magnum
-1mm caudal to the pyramidal decussation

bottom/caudal/inf
-btwn L1 and L2 vertebrae
site of conus medullaris

2

what do the cervical enlargements innervate?
what about the lumbar enlargement?

upper extremities
lower extremities

3

which space is CSF in

subarachnoid space

4

what are the differences btwn cranial and spinal meninges?

1. dura in the cord has only 1 layer. in the brain there are 2
-outer dural layer that is present i nthe brain end at the foramen magnum, so the cord only covered by an inner investing dural layer
2. epidural space is not a potential space in cord but an actual space filled w/ fat and veins

5

what do the meninges of the brain and cord have in common

shared subarachnoid space bc CSF is able to bathe the cord and spinal nerve roots

6

CSF heads caudally to the

lumbar cistern

7

how is the spinal cord pairs divided up

8 cervical
12 thoracic
5 lumbar
5 scaral
1 coccygeal

8

what does each spinal nerve innervate?
what does each spinal cord segment innervate?

a single dermatome and myotome
a dermatome and a myotome

9

what does the cervical enlargemnt innervate

upper extremities from C5 to T1

10

what does the lumbosacral enlargement innervate

lower extremities from L2 to S3

11

where does the spinal cord end

btwn L1 and L2 vertebrae

12

what is a papilledema

the bilateral sweling of both optic discs due to increased intracranial pressure
-if the pt develops a space occupying lesion (tumor or bleeding) there's not enough room in skull so the ICP increases and can be transmistted along both optic nerves due to the SHARED SUBARACHNOID SPACE.
-same CSF that circulates around the brain and cord so its also around the optic nerces

13

what are the two investigations needed for possible causes of elevated ICP

1. neuroimaging (MRI/MRV) to look for structural lesions
2. if imaging is normal, next is CSF analysis by lumbar puncture

if LP proves that the ICP is high, then the bilarteral disc edema can be specifically called a papilledema

14

where is CSF sampled from in a LP

lumbar cistern

15

what does a LP allow documentation of?
the CSF sample is sent to a lab to analyze its...?

1. opening pressure
2. composition

16

where is the lumbar cistern located

just below the spinal cord itself but still within the dural sac (from L1-L2 vert to S2 vert)

17

where is the needed in an LP for adults placed?

L3-L4 or L4-L5

18

what is the preferred pt position when doing an LP?

lateral decubitus
-lying on side
-in fetal position

19

what is the cut-off of the normal range of the opening pressure?

> 250 mmH2O

20

where does the dural sac end

S2 (therefore thats where the lumbar cistern ends also)

21

where is the conus medullaris
what is it

just below L1
caudal termination of the cord

22

where is the cauda eqina

spinal nerve roots from the lumbosacral region extending beyond the conus medullaris

23

what is the filum terminale

a thickening of the meninges which anchors the spinal cord around the coccyx

24

are spinal nerves CNS?

no, they are PNS

25

what are spinal nerves covered by
spinal roots?

epineurium
meningies

26

what are dorsal roots

afferent sensory fibers entering the cord.

27

what type of neurons are dorsal root ganglion

pseudo-unipolar neurons w/ both central and peripheral processes

28

what are ventral roots
where are their cell bodies or origin

-efferent motor fibers going out to the periphery. probaby to innervate somatic or autonomic muscles
-inside the spinal cord's gray matter

29

each spinal nerve if formed by the union of what?
what kind of fibers do they contain?

dorsal and ventral root
sensory and motor fibers (mixed nerve(

30

what are the roots and rootlets enclosed in ?
what is the spinal nerve ?

1. dural sleeve
2. epineurium