Flashcards in Lecture 29 Deck (44)
What is the definition of a drug?
any substance that when administered to a living organism, produces a biological effect.
What is pharmacology?
the study of how the function of living systems is affected by chemical agents
What is pharmacokinetics?
the study of absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion of drugs
What is pharmacodynamics?
the study of effects of drugs and their mechanisms of action
What is Clinical pharmacology or Pharmacotherapeutics
the study of the use of drugs in the prevention and
treatment of disease.
What is toxicology?
the study of adverse effects of drugs
Describe how drugs target ion channels?
by altering the conductance of ion channels
examples of ion channel altering drugs?
G-protein-linked receptors and drugs
60 percent of drugs act upon G-proteins
Examples of drugs that use G protein linked receptors
albuterol- asthma (beta-2 agonist)
propranolol- hypertension (beta-anatagonist)
Example of enzyme-linked receptors?
receptor tyrosine kinase
What receptors are included in enzyme linked?
epidermal growth factor receptor
What is the drug imatinib used for and what does it inhibit?
it is an effective treatment for leukemia
inhibits tyrosine kinase receptor
What do nuclear receptors do?
they regulate the expression of genes controlling metabolism and growth
What ligands bind to nuclear receptors?
examples of drugs that inhibit enzymes?
What kinds of drugs are used to treat psychiatric disorders?
drugs that interfere with neurotransmitter transporters
Example of an anti-cancer drug that binds to tubulin
arrests cells in the metaphase stage
What are the two types of dose-response curves?
graded and quantal
How is the relationship between drug concentration and effect described on a graph
a hyperbolic curve
What does Emax mean?
the maximal response produced by a drug
What does EC50 mean?
the drug concentration that produces 50 percent of the maximal effect
What is Bmax?
the total concentration of binding sites
What is kD?
the equilibrium dissociation constant
occupy half the receptors
receptors affinity for the drug
if kD is low, affinity is high vice versa
What is efficacy?
the magnitude of the response a drug produces
What is potency?
is a measure of the concentration or amount of drug necessary to produce an effect of a given magnitude
What is an agonist?
a drug that binds to and activates a receptor in a way that brings about an effect
affinity and efficacy
What is an antagonist?
inhibits the action of an agonist but has no effect in the absence of the agonist
affinity but no efficacy
What is used to determine potency?