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What are pertinent ANS symptoms?

1. orthostatic lighheadedness
2. vasomotor symptoms- discoloration of skin

3. secretomotor symptoms- dry mouth, dry eyes, excessive salivation

4. postprandial symptoms - anxiety

5. GI symptoms - anorexia, bloating, constipation, vomiting, and pain

6. bladder - incomplete emptying

7. sexual issues - loss of function

8. sleep issues - restlessness

9. eyes - blurred vision


what are the noninvasive bedside tests?

1. bp response to standing or tilting forward

2. HR response to standing

3. HR variation with respiration

4. sweat test


What is the normal response to standing up or tilting forward?

BP will drop 10/20 mm Hg anything higher is abnormal


What is the normal response to heart rate when standing?

increase 11-90 beats per minute


What is the normal response to HR variation with respiration?

initial increase in rate, but their is a rapid decrease


what is the normal response to the sweat test?

sweat is present all over body and limbs


what is being tested when doing the standing up or tilting forward test?

afferent and sympathetic efferent limbs


what is being tested when doing the standing up standing test?

parasympathetic (vagal) afferent and efferent limbs


what is being tested when HR variation is being tested with respiration?

vagal afferent and efferent limbs


what is being tested during the sweat test?

sympathetic efferent limb


how can the sympathetic efferent pathways be further tested?

sudomotor activity


what are symptoms of hyper-excitability of the adrenal glands?

anxiety, palpitations, and weight loss

hypertension and tachycarida