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1

basic building blocks of matter

atoms

2

Atomic Theory of Matter:

List 5 key concepts that describe atoms

1. all matter is made up of atoms
2. all atoms of the same element are similar but they are significantly different from atoms of another element
3. the number and arrangements of atoms determines a substance's identity
4. chemical change is rearrangement of atoms to give a new substance
5. only whole atoms participate in a chemical change (can't be broken down)

3

2 Las that fall under Dalton's Atomic Theory

Law of Conservation of Matter
Law of Definite Proportions

4

the elements in a compound are always present in definite proportions

Law of Definite Proportions

5

matter is neither lost nor gained during a chemical reaction

Law of Conservation of Matter

6

True/False: the composition of a pure substance is not constant

FALSE! IT IS CONSTANT!

7

building blocks of atoms

subatomic particles

8

3 subatomic particles

electrons
protons
neutrons

9

where are the protons and neutrons located in an atom

the nucleus

10

where are the electrons located in an atom

extranuclear

11

Movement of electrons determine _____ of an atom

size

12

The protons and neutrons = ______% mass of an atom

99.9%

13

The protons are equal to the _______ on and element on the periodic table

atomic number

14

How to determine the number of electrons of an element

it's the same as the number of protons

15

How to determine the number of neutrons of an element

atomic mass - # protons

16

atoms of same electron with different # of neutrons

isotope

17

True/False: all atoms of an element must have different # of protons, but can also differ # of neutrons

FALSE! all atoms of an element must have the same # of protons, but can vary in # of neutrons

18

average of different isotopes atomic masses

atomic weight

19

repeating according to some patter

periodic

20

when elements are arranged in the order of increasing atomic #, their chemical and physical properties show repeatable trends

periodic law

21

Where are representative elements located on periodic table

the "A" group

22

Where are the transition elements located on the periodic table

the "B" group

23

True/False: halogens are always colored

FALSE! halogens are NOT always colored

24

True/False: most metals are red

FASLE! most metals are gray

25

Electron Shell Capacity

1st shell = 2
2nd shell = 8
3rd shell = 18
4th shell = 32
5th shell = 50
6th shell = 72
7th shell = 98

- shells 3.... overlap in energy

26

subshells and their capacity

s = 2 e-, 1 orbital
p = 6 e-, 3 orbital
d = 10 e-, 5 orbital
f = 14 e-, 7 orbital

27

describes the arrangement of e- in an atom

- because an e-'s energy is ______ it can have only specific values

quantum mechanics

28

Who showed that atoms are mostly empty space

Rutherford

29

Who found the charge to mass ratio of e-

Thomson

30

Who showed that the charge on any particle is a multiple of the charge on an e-

Millikan