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Flashcards in Lecture 8 - Solutions Deck (44)
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1

True/False: water has the ability to dissolve a wide variety of substances

True

2

aqueous solution = homogeneous or heterogeneous mixture

homogeneous

3

7 types of solutions:
gas/gas
gas/liquid
liquid/liquid
liquid/solid
solid/liquid
solid/solid
gas/solid

air (O, N, and other gases)
soda pop (CO2 in H2O)
vinegar (acetic acid in H2O)
dental fillings (Hg in Ag)
sea water (NaCl in H2O)
brass (Zn in Cu)
nitrogen in steel

4

the measure of how much solute will dissolve in a solvent

solubility

5

solutions that contain the max amount of solute for the given conditions - cannot dissolve additional state

saturated solutions

6

why does the temperature always need to be specified when describing a saturated solution

because the solubility depends on temperature and temperature must be specified because of the "temperature effect" on solubility

7

most solids become more soluble in aqueous solution with _____ temperature

increasing

8

gas solubility decreases with _____ temperature for aqueous solutions

increasing

9

solutions that contain less than the max amount of solute - can dissolve additional state

unsaturated solutions

10

if a substance does not dissolve in a solvent

insoluble

11

contain a small amount of solute relative to what could dissolve

dilute solutions

12

contain a large amount of solute relative to what could dissolve

concentrated solutions

13

all solutes that dissolve in water can be divided into two categories

electrolyte
nonelectrolyte

14

a substance that dissolves in water to give an electrically conducting solution

electrolyte

15

a substance that dissolves in water to give a solution that conducts electricity poorly

nonelectrolyte

16

when an ionic substance dissolves in water it _____ into its ions

dissociates

17

component present in the greatest amount

solvent

18

component present in the relatively smaller amount

solute

19

substance that dissolve in each other in all proportions

miscible

20

what are gases always miscible

because the intermolecular attractions in the gas phase are always weak

21

when a dissolved solute forms a solid

crystallization

22

when the rate of dissolution and crystallization are equal

equilibrium

23

4 concepts for understanding equilibrium:

equilibrium is
- time dependent
- dynamic
- reversible
- temperature dependent

24

3 factors affecting the rate of solution formation and establishment of equilibrium

1. surface area
2. agitation
3. temperature

25

increasing the pressure will _____ the solubility of a gas in a solvent

increase

26

decreasing the pressure will _____ the solubility of a gas in a solvent

decrease

27

the amount of solute dissolved in a given amount of solvent or solution

concentration

28

concentration equation:

concentration = (amt. solute/amt. solution)

29

% mass (solute) =

(mass solute/total mass solution) x 100

30

the ratio of the volume of a solute to the volume of the solution, multiplied by 100

volume-volume percent