Lecture 3 - Pleura and Lungs Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 3 - Pleura and Lungs Deck (33):
1

The trachea begains at the

cricoid cartliage

Surroudned by incomplete posterior rings

The incomplete section is bridged by the trachealis muscle - keep sthe trachea open

2

The right main bronchus is...

more vertical
wider
shorter

things more likely to get stuck in the Right lung

3

There can be 2 or 3 lobar bronchi at the ...

Right Hilum

4

Bifurcation is at the ..

Plane of louis - T4/5

5

trachea is an _____ positioned tube

anteriorly

6

There is a very defined braching pattern - up to about __ orders of branching

25

7

The bronchi themselves are also supported by _____ which runs all the way down the branches

Cartilage

Becomes the bronchioles when the cartilage is lost

8

What is Athsma?

Spasm of smooth muscle in particular around the bronchioes

common triggers cause smooth muscle to contract - exacerbated in the cold (cold air makes smooth muscle spasm and constrict)

9

WHere does the apex of the 2 lungs lie?

2-3cm about the 1st rib - prone to damage

10

Where does the base of the lung sit?

diaphragm

11

The Right lung has how many lobes?

3

12

What are the fissures of the Right lung?

Horizontal and oblique

13

Which lung has the caridac notch?

Left lung - also only has one fissue (oblique fissure)

14

At the hilum of lungs where at the pulmonary arteries?

posterior and superior - relative to the veins

(veins are inferior and anterior)

15

Describe the Bronchial arteries and where they come from

Really small

Derived from the descending aorta, follow the bronchi into the hilum

16

Venous drainage of the bronchioles goes where?

to the azygous system of veins

17

The Vagus nerve is always found..

posterior to the hilum

18

The phrenic nerve runs ...

anterior to the root of the lung

19

Parsymapthetic innervation to lungs is from from the __cranial ___ nerve (runs through _____ sheath)

Parsymapthetic innervation to lungs is from from the 10th cranial vagus nerve (runs through carotid sheath)

20

Ps wil make the lungs..

constrict

21

What does Sympathetic nerves to the lung do and where are they from?

Inhibits smooth muscle contraction to dilate

derived from spinal cord - sympathetic ganglion T1-T4

22

The autonomic vesssels plexuses where/

around the bifurcation of the trachea

23

The Lymphatics of the lung all drain through ____nodes up to the right ______duct

or the ____duct for the left lung

The Lymphatics of the lung all drain through hilar nodes up to the right lympathetic duct or the thoracic duct (for the left lung)

24

The pleura is a double layered _____membrane that has developed around each lung. Has a ____layer which lines the wall and a ______layer which lines the lung. There is potential space which contains ______ ______ to provide surface tension that keeps them togeher (think glass water analogy)

The pleura is a double layered serous membrane that has developed around each lung. Has a parietal layer which lines the wall and a visceral layer which lines the lung. There is potential space which contains serous fluid to provide surface tension that keeps them togeher (think glass water analogy)

25

Where is the pleural recess?

between the ribs and diaphragm = costodiaphragmatic

26

The reflection of the pleura (towards the hilum) is called the ...

Pulmonary ligament

27

In development, the viscera tends to...

Grab the serous membrane and drag behind it

The viscera will then grow to site of cavity

You end up with viscera surrounded by a double lined membrane - the parietal and visceral membrane

28

What supplies sensory to the parietal layer?

adjacent intercostal nerve and phrenic nerve

29

What supplies sensory to the visceral layer?

Sympathetics (same as lung)

30

Parietal pleura pain will be ..

.sharp and localised pain - somatic

31

Visceral pleura pain will be..

Dull - visceral type pain

32

If the surface tension between parietal and visceral layers is lost, what will happen?

What are some ways in which this can happen?

The lung will collapse

can be caused by pneumthorac (from stab wound - air seperates membranes)

Or hemothorax - bleed will push the membrances apart

33

The apex of the lung is particularly prone to...

injury