Lecture 31 - Pharynx and Soft Palate Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 31 - Pharynx and Soft Palate Deck (28):

From the base of the skull downwards, what are the parts of the Pharynx?



Laryngopharynx - c6 is lower border of cricoid cartilage


The muscles of the pharynx essentially...

close the posterior aspect of the nose mouth and larynx


What fascia runs deep to the pharynx muscles?

pharyngobasilar fascia - exposed in some areas


What are the constrictors and what is their role?

Contract sequentially during swallowing

Superior constrictor msucle - attaches to raphe over buccinator msucle

middle constrictor muscle - attachments along the hyoid bone

Inferior constrictor msucle - lamina of the thyoid cartialge


What is the Median raphe?

The posterior meeting point of the sling-like muscles from each side


cricopharngeus can be described as the lower part of ____ _____ ____ - functionally it does the same thing

inferior constrictor muscle - but gets a seperate branch from Vagus


What are the internal layer of muscles?

Saplinopharyngeus - attaches from opening of auditory tube down towards the pharynx

palatopharyngeus - attched to the soft palate contraction depresses the palate

stylopharyngeus - attached to styoid process (just anterior to the mastoid process), contraction elevates pharynx


the roof of the nasopharynx is formed by..

the body of the sphenoid


Contraction of the saplingopharyngeus causes..

pull the opening of the auditory tube - opens just enough to allow pressure equalisation


The tubule elevation is the...

mucosa over the top of the cartilagenous auditory tube


A swollen (adenoid) tonsil will change what,

the resonance of speech

can block airways


What are the borders of the oropharynx?

Superior: soft palate (with uvula)

posterior - superior constrictor muscle

lateral: palato-pharyngeal arch and palatoglossal arch, with palatine tonsil in between

floor: posterior 1/3 of tongue and eipglottis (including the space between them = vallecula)


palato-pharyngeal arch and palatoglossal arch are lined by,..

mucosa - over the top of palato-pharyngeal and palatoglossal muscle respectively


From the palatoglossal arch backwards is..



The epiglottis is pushed _______ when swallowing

posteriorly - its just cartilagenous


just lateral to the Ayepiglottic fold is a channel to allow liquid to pass over the larygeal inlet, what is it called?

piriform recess - fluid spills out over it (there isn't enough force to push the epiglottis down itself)


The entire pharynx is innerved by...

CN9 (glossopharyngeal nerve)


Each area of the pharynx gets a reinforcement by the neighbouring sensory innervation, what are these?

superiorly, CNV2 - maxillary division

Vagus inferiorly (internal laryngeal nerve)


What is the nerve supply of the mucosa (sensory ) in the middle ear?

Gloosopharyngeal - it is originally an outpouching of the area, essentially an extension of the nasopharynx


What innervates most of the msucles in the pharynx, what is the exception?

pharyngeal braacnhes of Vagus

Except Sytlopharyngeus (CN9) - glossopharyngeal


What forms the soft palate?

muscle from midline - musculus uvulae - atached my the palatine aponeurosis to the hard palate (in particular the horizontal plate of the palatine bones)


True or False

The soft palate has a mucous membrane all around it



What is the function of the soft palate?

Seals nasal cavity during swallowing and coughing

Helps seal oral cavity during chewing to allow unimpeded breathing - Helps with sucking


Which 5 muscles support the structure of the soft palate?

Superiorly: Tensor veli palatini
Levator veli palatini - come in and attach from the lateral aspect, contraction causes elevation (work together) - also help with auditory tube

palatoglossus and palatopharygeus are the depressors of the soft palate

all these are considered pharyngeal muscles and hence are supplied by Vagus - one exception


what innervated the 5 muscles that support the structure of the soft palate?

all these are considered pharyngeal muscles and hence are supplied by Vagus -

one exception being Tensor veli palatini - trigeminal (t=for tensor, t=for trigeminal)


What is the fauces?

The space at the back of the oral cavity leading into the pharynx - food and air go through


What is waldeyer's ring?

Incomplete ring of lymphoid tissue:



Palatine (important in priming the immune system but less important later on)

Lingual - on tongue


Swallowing is a serioues of contractions of muscles of the tongue, soft palate and pharynx t get a bolus of food frm our mouth into our stomach

What are the steps?

Phase 1:
1. Bolus is shaped and pushed by the tongue to the palate

2. Soft palate descends and palatal arches are aprroximated t grip and push the bolus into the oropharynx

Phase 2 - protect the nasal cavity:
3. Soft palate elevated and tightened to prevent bolus entering nasal cavity

4. Larynx and pharynx elevated to bring bolus closer to oesophagus

5. Laryngeal inlet closed to prevent bolus from entering trachea

Phase 3:
6. bolus is pushed down the oropharynx and over the epiglottis

7. Bolus forced down through laryngopharynx and into oesophagus

8. Larynx depressed to return to normal position (mainly by elastic recoil)