Lecture 6 - Heart and Pericardium Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 6 - Heart and Pericardium Deck (40):
1

Looking anteriorly at the heart from Right to left, wwhat do you see?

Right Atrium, atrioventricular groove, Right ventricle, Interventricular groove, Left ventricle

2

Right atrium

Most of the Right atrium is smooth, what is this area called?

Interatrial septum

3

Right atrium

Most of the anterior wall is is rough what is this called?

Musculi pectinati (ridges of cardiac muscle)

4

Right atrium

The extra ridge of muscle, and the marker for the SA node is the?

Crista Terminalis

5

What are the auricles?

Projection of atria which usually cover up the roots of the great vessels, left over from development - no real function

6

Right atrium

Where is the coronary sinus located?

Between the IVC and RA orifice

7

Right atrium

What is the fossa ovalis?

Little depression on the inter-atrial septum, open in the foetus (allows blood between the atria)

8

The movement of blood to0 the ventricles occurs via...

Negative pressure from the relaxation of the heart muscle

9

Right Ventricle

What valve is betwen the Right artiium/ventricle?

Tricuspid valve

3 cusps hanging like string from chordae tendinae

10


Tricuspid valve - 3 cusps hanging like string from _____ _______

chordae tendinae

11

What is trabeculae carnae?

muscular ridges - same as musculi pectinati (on anterior surface of RV

12

The interventricular septum is on the ....

very medial side

13

What is the area just inferior to the Puomonary trunk?

Conus arteriosis

14

What part of the RV has parts of the conduction system traveling through it?

Septomarginal band - good marker to the electrical conduction system - extra attachment to the ant. papillary muscle

15

The Left artium has __ pulmonary vein coming in

2

16

The Left ventricle has the thickest layer of...

myocardium - has to project blood throughout the body

17

The LV has the Bicuspid valve a.k.a...

Mitral valve

18

The Ductus arteriosis (comminication between aorta and pulmonary trunk) remain in adults as ...

Ligamentum artiosum

First expansion of lungs results in closure of ductus arteriosus and foramen ovale

19

When babies take their first breath smooth muscles are the airways release hormones that act on smooth muscle around the _____ _______ - causes muscle to contracts which shuts the hole

When babies take their first breath smooth muscles are the airways release hormones that act on smooth muscle around the ductus arteriosis - causes muscle to contracts which shuts the hole

20

The higher pressure of blood in the ___ will pull blood from the pulmonary trunk into it.

aorta

21

The higher pressure in the LA pushes the valve of ______ ____shut and it fuses

The higher pressure in the LA pushes the valve of foramen ovale shut and it fuses

22

The fibrous skeleton is seen in the plane of the...

AV grooves

seen in grey
forms anchorage for the valves

23

The fibrous skeleton provides what?

Discontinuity between the muscle of the atria and ventricles

24

The Pulmonary semilunar and aortic semilunar valve are all anchored to what?

The cardiac muscle by some connective tissue (grey material)

25

Nerve supply to the heart is ______. Pacemakers cells are affected by nerves

What do sympathetic nerves do?

Nerve supply to the heart is autonomic. Pacemakers cells are affected by nerves

Sympathetic nerve increase the HR and force of contraction

26

The parasympathetic cardiac nerves produce a mess we can't untangle, which is called the ...

Cardiac plexus

27

Pain from the heart will refer to which dermatomes?

T1-4

Visceral sensory fibres from heart enter spinal cord at T1-4

28

_____ is the double layered membrane around the heart

serous pericardium

much like pleura (and peritoneum)

29

Pericardium

The visceral layer of serous pericardium is

tightly adhered

30

Parietal layer and visceral layer are continuous at .....

Parietal layer and visceral layer are continuous at the roots of the great vessels

31

within the actual heart what are the 3 layers?

Endocardium - layer lining the cavities of the heart

Myocardium - muscle layer

Epicardium - the outer trim of the heart

32

True or False

Epicarium, the outer trim of the heart is the SAME as visceral layer of serous pericardium)

True

33

Why are serous membrances around organs important?

help create frictionless movment

34

because there is a space (pericardial space) - there can be _____

effusion

35

Innervation to the Pericardium is ___ ______

sensory only - no muscle fibres

36

Innervation to the Pericardium is from what?

where do they run?

You want to use fibres of a nerve that are close - therefore dervied from phrenic nerve.

37

Innervation to the Pericardium runs where?

anterior to the hilum of the lung -somtimes pain that effects the pericardium is referred to dermatomes c3,4,5 - neck and jaw

38

What are the 2 pericardial sinuses?

Transverse and oblique sinuses

39

THe transverse sinus is used to...

ligate the aorta and pulmonary trunk

40

The oblique sinus runs from the ___ up toward the ________ ___.

The oblique sinus runs from the apex up toward the pulmonary veins.