Flashcards in Lecture 6.1 Deck (27):
what is metacognition?
knowledge about your own cognition
what is metamemory?
knowledge about how your memory works; perception of how well we think we remember something
are predictions or postdictions more accurate?
postdictions tend to be more accurate because you've seen the material and can make an assessment of how well you did
what other factors might influence a prediction?
how much sleep you got, how well you've done on other tests, how you felt before the test, etc.
In the 1980 study by Zechmeister & Shaughnessy, what did people think led to better recall?
most people FELT that they'd do better with *massed* practice
What were the results for the study done by Zechmeister & Shaughnessy?
PEOPLE ARE SENSITIVE TO HOW OFTEN WORDS ARE PRESENTED! *people were pretty accurate for spaced presentation recall, but were OVER confident for massed presentation recall
what happened in Newton's "Name that Tune" experiment?
tappers made predictions of how well they thought people would remember it; they overestimate performance by a lot.
what is the curse of knowledge?
we are over-confident when we have access to information
what is retrieval fluency?
when something quickly comes to mind
what is perceptual fluency?
how easy something is to read
what are the four types of metamemory judgments?
- ease of learning
what is ease of learning?
a judgment up-front of how easy it would be to learn something
what is a judgment of learning (JOL)?
after encoding, you estimate the chance you'll recall later
what is a feeling of knowing (FOK)?
attempted recall; tip of the tongue (TOT) rating, prediction of later recall or recongition
what is confidence?
how accurate a given response is
how do we make JOLs?
through direct access or inferentially
what is the theory of direct access?
when making JOLs, we have access to the memory
what is the inferential theory?
when we don't have access to the memory, but make an inference when making JOLs
Do we always/ever have direct access to memories?
we almost never have direct access; we rely on cues & make guesses based on available information
In an experiment done by Kelley & Rhodes, did font size influence judgments?
font size doesn't really influence recall, but people THINK that it does
what were subject's JOLs in the font size experiment?
subjects' JOLs showed predictions that were higher for larger font sizes, even though recall performance varied much less
what conclusions can be made about the inverted words study?
engaging in effortful processing has benefits but most people don’t want to do it; they want it to be easy to learn
what were the results in the inverted words study?
there was no difference in JOL between upright and inverted words, but recall was higher in inverted
what do we know about retrieval dynamics?
we need to be able to retrieve info fast/know when we SHOULD be able to retrieve
Do subjects take into account serial position when making JOLs?
Not really, but will when:
- info is told to them
- if they have some experience
- when they must provide a JOL prior to seeing the item
When you must provide a JOL prior to seeing the material, what do you use?