Lecture 7.1 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7.1 Deck (17):
1

a _____ is a set of things we group together

category

2

a ____ is a mental representation

concept

3

when we study how people retain info, we study their ________ learning

conceptual

4

what are concepts for?

- memory
- communication
- inference
- reasoning

5

what is a concept?

information that belongs to a general category or group; units bear some "family resemblance" to one another

6

what does the picture verification task measure?

to what degree items fit categories & are part of the prototype view of a concept

7

what is the prototype view?

the average of all the exemplars you've seen

8

what is the difference between a prototype and an exemplar?

a prototype is a collection (average) of things you've seen before.

an exemplar is a number of items that fit a certain description

9

when asked to name a list of fruits, which three would be the first output?

apple, banana, orange. people generally recall stronger exemplars first. typicality effects are strong.

10

what does it mean to say that concepts are "fuzzy"?

concepts are rapidly expanding. definitions & boundaries are fuzzy, so we must accommodate new members by relying on exemplars

11

how do we use scripts to organize memories?

scripts dictate what we ~expect~ will happen in a certain situation; scripts allow us to FIT events into schemas that we already have

12

what did Bartlett's study on "A Native American Legend" find?

- retellings got shorter & more concise
- cultural differences in recall
- schema-incongruent info is lost

13

why is schema-incongruent information often lost?

you can’t tie it to knowledge that you already have

14

when asked to recall what was in the photo of an office, why do people recall books?

based on your schemas, they're what you'd expect to see in an office. you organize learning based on prior knowledge!

15

how do schemas lead to intrusions?

we naturally fill in details to aid comprehension; these details may end up in memory

16

true or false: if events are presented out of order, people usually recall them in this order

false: events may be reordered to conform to scripts

17

what is a binding error?

remembering what to say/when to say it. you have all the information right, just no in an order that makes sense