Lecture 7.2 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 7.2 Deck (19):

what is a heuristic?

a rule of thumb/mental shortcut that allows us to make quick judgments without thinking too hard


what's an availability heuristic?

when you make decisions based on info that is readily available to you


how quickly something comes to mind is part of the _____ heuristic.



true or false: if something doesn't come to mind quickly, we should disregard it because it's likely untrue.



what is the representativeness heuristic based on?

how well an event matches a prototype


according to the availability heuristic, how might you answer this question: are there more words that start with R or more with R in the third position?

you choose R - it's easier to come up with words that star with R; you base your decision off of the words that come to mind


why might subjects overestimate deaths by cancer and underestimate deaths by diabetes?

cancer gets a lot of attention in the press. *judgments are influenced by how often something occurs in the media


in the McCabe & Castel study, which graph got rated more accurate?

higher ratings for brain image vs. graph; people like to see ~where it happens~


why might John A. F. Summons be rated more intellectual than John Summons?

availability is being used; a lot of prominent people are known to have middle initials


what did Schwartz study on assertiveness prove?

how you frame a question is important! people changed their rating of assertiveness depending on the task.


how can we use the availability heuristic in the classroom to boost course ratings?

ask questions you know will be rated high (can I improve on being punctual? can I improve on wearing my glasses?)

+ asking students to list TEN ways the course could be improved


how does fluency guide judgments?

if we can encode/process something quickly, we might be more inclined to remember it


what were the findings of the Alter & Oppenheimer study on dollar bills?

subjects were asked how much they could buy with a one dollar bill; they subconsciously think they can buy more with the real dollar than the altered one


what is the representativeness heuristic?

basing judgment likelihood on how similar an item is to a class


according to gambler's fallacy, we're more likely to remember _____.



asking if Gandhi lived past 120 years would be a ___ anchor



asking if Gandhi lived past 9 years would be a ___ anchor



what is anchoring?

when you're primed with a number and you use that number to answer arbitrary questions that have nothing to do with that number


what is significant about causal schemas?

confidence in a conclusion is higher if you can extract some causal scenario that leads from one to the other