Lecture 8 RH - Angiosperm fruit Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Lecture 8 RH - Angiosperm fruit Deck (56):
1

What is a feature of the angiosperm lifecycle?

It happens very fast

2

How is pollen formed?

Meiosis produces a tetrapod of pollen and this tetrapod separates to form individual pollen grains

3

How are egg cells produced from spores?

Embryo sac containing a megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid cells.

The embryo sac then contains a haploid egg which undergoes mitosis 3 times.

2 polar bodies are formed and 6 egg cells (3 on each side)

4

How does double fertilisation take place?

Pollen grains attach to the stigma and 2 sperm travel through the style towards the ovary.

Sperm fuses with egg to form zygote and another sperm fuses with polar nuclei to form the endosperm

5

What part of the fruit does the ovule become?

The seed

6

What part of the fruit does the integument become?

Seed coat (testa)

7

What part of the fruit does the ovary wall produce?

pericarp

8

What part of the fruit does the floral tube and perianth form?

May form the fruit wall

9

What is a feature of all fruit?

They are found above the ground

10

What are the categories of fruit?

Simple

Agreggate

Multiple

11

What are the types of simple fruit?

Fleshy

Dry

12

What are the types of fleshy fruit?

Single seeded

Multiseeded

13

What are the types of dry fruits?

Deiscent

Indehiscent

14

How are carpels used in identification of fruit?

Some fruit are monocarpous (Most legumes) These have a single carpel

Syncarpous (many are fused and constitutes most flowers)

Apocarpous (consist of many distinct unfused flowers)

15

What are agreggate fruits made of?

Agreggate cluster of simple fruits and are formed from a group of ovaries attached to a single receptacle.

This is typically seen in the rosaceae family

16

Where are seeds located in strawberries?

On the outside

17

What are simple fruits derived from?

Single carpel in both monocarpous and syncarpous flowers (in syncarpous flowers the carpels unite)

18

What are agreggate fruits?

Cluster of simple fruits fromed from an apocarpous carpel attached to a single receptacle

19

What are multiple fruits?

Develop from many individual flowers that fuse together as the fruit grows.

20

What are the types of multiple fruits?

Strobilis: Dry, cone-like fruit such as that seen in cannibiaceae

Synconus: Fleshy fruit derived from capitulum

Sorosis: Fleshy fruit derived from a spike

21

What simple fruit is composed of a hard endocarp?

A drupe

22

What part of the flower forms the fruit in pomes?

Ovary wall AND floral tube

23

What are berries?

Fleshy outer wall fruit such as tomatoes, kiwifruit, grapes, etc...

*Solonaceae represents this fruit type well

24

What are pepos?

Ovary wall is a hard rind such as in cucumber, pumpkin, and watermelon

25

What are hesperidium?

Leathery outer wall such as in grapefruit, oranges, and lemons

26

What are the types of fleshy simple fruit?

Berries

Pomes

Hesperidium

27

What are the types of dry fruit?

Follicle (splitting along one suture)

Legume (splitting along 2 sutures)

Capsule dehisces through pores, slits, or valves

28

How are valved fruit distinguished?

euclids are identified based on number of valves

29

What do samara fruits look like?

Wing like pericarp

30

What do achene's look like?

Achene (like bizr and pumpkin seeds) consists of a small fruit with a thin wall

31

What is a fruit with a large, thick stony wall?

A nut

32

What are the main types of schizocarps?

Lomentum (transverse splitting as seen in fabaceae)

Cremocarp (Inferior ovary fruit splits vertically into 2 mericarps)

Carcerulus (Fruit from a superior ovary splits vertically into 2 or more mericarps)

33

How are schizocarps formed?

Carpels are splitting apart at maturity and become 1-seed units (mericarps)

34

Which fruit are made up of united pericarp all around?

Grains (caryopsis)

Represented by poaceae such as rice, corn, and wheat.

35

What is fruit hybridisation?

Several fruits that reproduce together produce intermediate fruit types

36

Which gene is responsible for fertlity in many plants?

jai1

37

What does the cotyledon become in adult plant?

Leaf

38

What does the plumule become in adult plants?

Shoot

39

What does the radicle become in adult plants?

Root

40

Why can oil be made from sunflower, peanut, and almond seeds?

They are high in lipid content (~50%) and this is a lot higher than carboydrate content. Pea and wheat have much lower lipid content.

41

What is a seed?

A mature ovule (it is composed of a single cell)

42

Which family has the smallest seeds?

Orchidaceae

43

Which family has the largest seeds?

Areaceae

44

How is germination controlled?

Stimulators and inhibitors react to the environmental conditions

Seed is protected in a seed coat which must often be broken through by physical disturbances

45

What is a seed viability test?

Seed is given tetrazolium chloride which penetrates into the seed if it has no outer covering. If it does then that causes the seed to stain red and indicates that the seed is viable

46

What are the methods that plants can reproduce by vegetatively via modified stems?

Parthenogenesis

Vegetative propagation

Tissue culture propagation

47

How do offground runners reproduce vegetatively?

Offshoots grow into the surrounding soil and grows into a viable plant

48

What are the types of vegetative budding?

Above ground runners

Underground Rhizomes

Underground tubers (like potatoes)

Underground corms (carbohydrate mass grows into a viable plant)

49

What is above ground vegetative propagation?

Little plantlets that grow on the leaves and can spread and grow into new individuals exist in some species

50

What is a vegetable?

Edible part of a stem or a root

51

What are the problems caused by natural clones?

Inbreeding

Extinction can result due to lack of variation

52

Why is cloning done in laboratories?

Conservation and commercialization of plants

53

How are clones produced in labs?

Genetic engineering

Cuttings

Tissue culture

54

What is the largest natural clone plant colony?

Quaking Aspen forest in Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA composed of a single male colony which reproduce by root regeneration.

55

What are the oldest natural clone colonies?

King;s Lomatia in Tasmania, Australia and reproduce by branch regeneration (43600 years old)

Creosote bush in California USA reproduce by root sprouts and is 12000 years old.

56

GMO's blah blah blah

blah blah blah studies have shown blah blah blah