Flashcards in Lecture 8 RH - Angiosperm fruit Deck (56):
What is a feature of the angiosperm lifecycle?
It happens very fast
How is pollen formed?
Meiosis produces a tetrapod of pollen and this tetrapod separates to form individual pollen grains
How are egg cells produced from spores?
Embryo sac containing a megaspore mother cell undergoes meiosis to form 4 haploid cells.
The embryo sac then contains a haploid egg which undergoes mitosis 3 times.
2 polar bodies are formed and 6 egg cells (3 on each side)
How does double fertilisation take place?
Pollen grains attach to the stigma and 2 sperm travel through the style towards the ovary.
Sperm fuses with egg to form zygote and another sperm fuses with polar nuclei to form the endosperm
What part of the fruit does the ovule become?
What part of the fruit does the integument become?
Seed coat (testa)
What part of the fruit does the ovary wall produce?
What part of the fruit does the floral tube and perianth form?
May form the fruit wall
What is a feature of all fruit?
They are found above the ground
What are the categories of fruit?
What are the types of simple fruit?
What are the types of fleshy fruit?
What are the types of dry fruits?
How are carpels used in identification of fruit?
Some fruit are monocarpous (Most legumes) These have a single carpel
Syncarpous (many are fused and constitutes most flowers)
Apocarpous (consist of many distinct unfused flowers)
What are agreggate fruits made of?
Agreggate cluster of simple fruits and are formed from a group of ovaries attached to a single receptacle.
This is typically seen in the rosaceae family
Where are seeds located in strawberries?
On the outside
What are simple fruits derived from?
Single carpel in both monocarpous and syncarpous flowers (in syncarpous flowers the carpels unite)
What are agreggate fruits?
Cluster of simple fruits fromed from an apocarpous carpel attached to a single receptacle
What are multiple fruits?
Develop from many individual flowers that fuse together as the fruit grows.
What are the types of multiple fruits?
Strobilis: Dry, cone-like fruit such as that seen in cannibiaceae
Synconus: Fleshy fruit derived from capitulum
Sorosis: Fleshy fruit derived from a spike
What simple fruit is composed of a hard endocarp?
What part of the flower forms the fruit in pomes?
Ovary wall AND floral tube
What are berries?
Fleshy outer wall fruit such as tomatoes, kiwifruit, grapes, etc...
*Solonaceae represents this fruit type well
What are pepos?
Ovary wall is a hard rind such as in cucumber, pumpkin, and watermelon
What are hesperidium?
Leathery outer wall such as in grapefruit, oranges, and lemons
What are the types of fleshy simple fruit?
What are the types of dry fruit?
Follicle (splitting along one suture)
Legume (splitting along 2 sutures)
Capsule dehisces through pores, slits, or valves
How are valved fruit distinguished?
euclids are identified based on number of valves
What do samara fruits look like?
Wing like pericarp
What do achene's look like?
Achene (like bizr and pumpkin seeds) consists of a small fruit with a thin wall
What is a fruit with a large, thick stony wall?
What are the main types of schizocarps?
Lomentum (transverse splitting as seen in fabaceae)
Cremocarp (Inferior ovary fruit splits vertically into 2 mericarps)
Carcerulus (Fruit from a superior ovary splits vertically into 2 or more mericarps)
How are schizocarps formed?
Carpels are splitting apart at maturity and become 1-seed units (mericarps)
Which fruit are made up of united pericarp all around?
Represented by poaceae such as rice, corn, and wheat.
What is fruit hybridisation?
Several fruits that reproduce together produce intermediate fruit types
Which gene is responsible for fertlity in many plants?
What does the cotyledon become in adult plant?
What does the plumule become in adult plants?
What does the radicle become in adult plants?
Why can oil be made from sunflower, peanut, and almond seeds?
They are high in lipid content (~50%) and this is a lot higher than carboydrate content. Pea and wheat have much lower lipid content.
What is a seed?
A mature ovule (it is composed of a single cell)
Which family has the smallest seeds?
Which family has the largest seeds?
How is germination controlled?
Stimulators and inhibitors react to the environmental conditions
Seed is protected in a seed coat which must often be broken through by physical disturbances
What is a seed viability test?
Seed is given tetrazolium chloride which penetrates into the seed if it has no outer covering. If it does then that causes the seed to stain red and indicates that the seed is viable
What are the methods that plants can reproduce by vegetatively via modified stems?
Tissue culture propagation
How do offground runners reproduce vegetatively?
Offshoots grow into the surrounding soil and grows into a viable plant
What are the types of vegetative budding?
Above ground runners
Underground tubers (like potatoes)
Underground corms (carbohydrate mass grows into a viable plant)
What is above ground vegetative propagation?
Little plantlets that grow on the leaves and can spread and grow into new individuals exist in some species
What is a vegetable?
Edible part of a stem or a root
What are the problems caused by natural clones?
Extinction can result due to lack of variation
Why is cloning done in laboratories?
Conservation and commercialization of plants
How are clones produced in labs?
What is the largest natural clone plant colony?
Quaking Aspen forest in Wasatch Mountains, Utah, USA composed of a single male colony which reproduce by root regeneration.
What are the oldest natural clone colonies?
King;s Lomatia in Tasmania, Australia and reproduce by branch regeneration (43600 years old)
Creosote bush in California USA reproduce by root sprouts and is 12000 years old.