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Flashcards in Lecture 11 RH Deck (91):
1

What are some biotic stress factors that affect plants?

Weeds- endemic vs invasive (different categories)

Pests and diseases (flowering trees and seed bearing trees)

2

How are weeds controlled?

Biological: Includes using animals or other natural enemies to feed on the weeds.

Cultural: Farming systems

Physical: Mulching, hand removal

Chemical: Herbicides

3

What are some abiotic stress factors?

Drought

Floods

Salinity (evaporation of water from the soil could be problematic)

Low nutrient soils (Australia has a problem with mineral nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen)

Fire (Australia has severe fires in summer and autumn)

4

Why do some plants have mycorrhizal association?

Increases nutrient uptake

Fungus brings in usable nutrients to the plant

Plant breaks down fungus, and obtains nutrients

5

What are the factors affected by fire?

Physical properties

Chemical properties

Nutrients (decrease in potassium and calcium levels in the soil)

Soil temperature

Soil moisture

Soil biota

6

What are adaptations that plants have to regular fires?

Resprouters grow from burned trunks

Reseeders produce more trees. (Some seed testa are so rigid that fire is necessary for them to emerge)

7

How are resprouters adapted to fires?

Rapidly developing buds are formed (At the terminal and can either be naked or have accessories)

Bark produced (some buds form under bark stimulated by hormones during dry seasons)

Underground organs such as lignotubers and tubers

Resprouters use mycorrhizal associations

Other adaptations include scleromorphology adaptations

8

When does the red bean orchid flower?

After fires

9

What do naked buds do?

Stalked buds in leaf axils with 1 - 3 per axil.

These buds develop with terminal buds reestablishing canopy cover quickly.

10

What do accessory buds do?

Secondary buds formed near primary buds

11

What is the benefit of having bark?

Increases the thickness of the wood and charred bark is shed

12

What does bark contain that can be used by humans?

Oils (Eucalypts)

Tannins (eg Redwoods)

Sap

13

What are lignotubers?

Bulbous mass of buds:

Large woody stem swelling

Basal stem tuber bearing many buds

Embedded in bark

Above or below ground

14

What are tubers?

Underground storage organs and is deep in soild making it protected from fire.

They are normally used for asexual reproduction for regeneration and is dependent on time of fire.

15

Which trees typically form lignotubers?

Eucaypts (mostly Mallee eucalypts)

16

What is the function of lignotubers?

They persist throughout the life of plants and are important to fire response and environmental stress response

17

What is serotiny?

Cones can withstand wildfire. Extreme temperatures open cones and distribute seeds

18

What happens to leaf morphology in response to fires?

They become hard and rigid with short internodes.

Small plant size

Sclerenchyma tissue is abundant in leaves

19

What is the origin of scleromorphology?

Probably evolved on margins of rainforest communities in heath vegetation

20

What are some water conservation strategies for plants?

Small air spaces

Less stomata

Sunken stomata

Small vascular bundles

Fewer vascular bundles

Usually only mesophyll present (no palisade cells)

21

What is required for germination of new plants?

Testa rupture

Water uptake

22

What treatments can increase germination?

Temperature: Heat

Physical abrasion

Nutritional smoke water, mycorrhiza

23

What does burning vegetation do to stimulate seed germination?

Produces cyanohydrins that liberate cyanide and stimulate seed germination

24

What are the largest angiosperm families in Australia?

Fabaceae 12% (dicot Acacia)

Myrtaceae 9.3% (Dicot Corymbia)

Asteraceae 8.0% (Dicot Goodenia)

25

What are Casuarinaceae?

She-Oaks which form trees or shrubs

26

What do causuarinaceae leaves look like?

Reduced to fused teeth on stems

Number of teeth around the stem are diagnostic of

27

How are casuarinaceae geographically separated?

Northerly form casuarina

Southerly form Allocasuarina

28

How are casuarinaceae pollinated?

Wind pollination

29

What do casuarinaceae fruit look like?

Woody cone. Bracts become woody (fire resistant)

Seeds are released when desiccated

30

What type of flowers do casuarinaceae produce?

Males: 1 bract 2 scale like perianth parts and 1 stamen

Females: 1 bract, 2 bracteoles, ovary of 2 carpels, 2 long reddish styles

31

What are chenopodiaceae?

Saltbushes

32

What kind of habitat do chenopodeaceae live in?

Saline habitats, coastal vegetation

33

What kind of vegetation do chenopodiaceae have?

Shrubs or herbs

34

What are the vegetative characteristics of chenopodiaceae?

Leaves are simple, alternate or clustered, exstipulate

35

What do chenopodiaceae flowers look like?

5 persistent sepals (swelling at fruiting into wings or spines or fleshy)

5 stamens

Superior ovary

K(5) C0 A5 G(2_)

36

What do chenopodiaceae fruit look like?

Dry cluster of follicles

37

What type of flowers are hibbertia representative of?

Dilleniaceae

38

Where are dilleniaceae typically found?

Tropical forests

39

What kind of vegetation does dillenaceae have?

Small Shrubs

40

What kind of inflorescence do dillenaceae form?

Solitary, often axillary:
Bisexual

Actinomorphic

5 free sepals, 5 free petals, few-numerous stamens, free or partly fused at base, some staminoides

41

What is the floral formula of dillenaceae?

K5 C5 A10 G(2_)

42

What kind of fruit do dillenaceae form?

Cluster of follicles

43

Where are epacridaceae located?

Southern hemisphere

44

What do epacridaceae look like?

Similar to Ericaceae

Medium tall shrubs

Leaves are simple, hard, mucronate, and have parallel veins

45

What are the floral characteristics of epacridaceae?

5 sepals (free or fused)

5 petals (free or fused)

5 stamens

Superior ovary (4 - 5 carpels)

1 - 10 locules

Common formula K(5) C(5) A5 G(5_)

46

What do epacridaceae fruit look like?

Woody capsule or succulent drupe

47

What do mimosoideae look like?

Bipinnate (ferny when young)

Phyllodes or spines (some) when old

48

Where are Mimosoideae located?

South America, Australia, Africa

49

What are the floral characteristics of mimosoideae?

Prominent stamen

Tightly packed flowers

Globular head or spikes

Floral formula: K4-5 C4-5 Ainf G1_

50

What kind of fruit do Mimosoideae produce?

legumes (hard seeded)

51

What are faboideae?

Pea plants

52

What is the lamiaceae family?

Mint family

53

What do lamiaceae produce as vegetation?

Shrubs and herbs (aromatic)

Leaves are simple, opposite or whorled, extipulate

54

What are lamiaceae floral characteristics?

5 sepals (fused)

4 - 5 petals (fused)

corolla is tubular, deeply lobed, and often 2 lipped

2 or 4 stamens, epipetalous, sometimes pairs of unequal length

Superior ovary

K(5) C(5) A2 or 4 G(2_)

55

What kind of fruit do lamiaceae produce?

4 achene-like nutlets

56

What is a unique feature to lamiaceae?

Fruit have 4 fruitlets

57

What is a common feature of all myrtaceae?

Woody with essential oils

Aromatic foliage when crushed

58

Where are myrtaceae located?

Mainly the Southern Hemisphere (Endemic to Australia, New Guinea, Indonesia, Timor, and Philippines)

59

Which genus is in the Northern Hemisphere?

Myrtus

60

What kind of flowers do myrtaceae have?

Actinomorphic

Bisexual

4 - 5 sepals that are free

4 - 5 petals that are free

2 - 10 carpels that are united

61

What kind of fruit do myrtaceae produce?

Dry, capsules in Southern Australian genera

Fleshy, berries in Northern Australian genera

62

Where are eucalypts located?

South East Australia

Dominate forests

Confined mainly to higher rainfall coastal regions

63

What do flowers of myrtaceae look like?

Actinomorphic

Bisexual

4 - 5 sepals and petals that are usually free

Numerous stamens, 5 or 10

2 - 10 carpels, commonly 5, united

64

What kind of plants are myrtaceae?

All species are woody with essential oils

65

What do fruits of myrtaceae look like?

Dry, capsules in South Us

Fleshy, berries in North Aus

66

Why is it hard to identify eucalyptus using leaf morphology?

As seedlings they have opposite leaves and as adults they become alternating.

Leaf shape is variable

67

What type of bark do eucalyptus have?

Decorticating: Shedding exposes smooth trunk and is shed seasonally in scales/broad plates/strips/ribbons

Persistent: Retains bark, rough bark

68

What is a unique feature of eucalypt fruit?

The operculum forms a cup

69

What kind of fruit do eucalypts produce?

capsules (valves that open when seeds mature)

70

In Eucalyptus, the bark type that is a seeder rather than a resprouter is the?

Gum

71

Name some Myrtaceae genera:

Acmaena (lilly pilly)

Angophora (apple box)

Callistemon (bottle-brush)

Leptospermum (tea tree)

Melaleuca (paper bark)

Tristania (brush box)

72

What is the common name of melaleuca?

Paper barks

Honey myrtle

73

How many species are there of melaleuca?

~150

74

What do flowers look like in melaleuca?

Stamens in 5 bundles

75

What kind of flowers to callistemon have?

Flowers form masses on inflorescence and are terminal at the end of branches.

*Look like dandelions that are pink and going around the stem in a whorled fashion at several points

76

How are stamens arranged on callistemons compared to melaleuca?

Melaleuca have stamens that split at the end of the styles.

Callistemons have several stamens that don't branch

*this has to be done on a microscope

77

What are spider families also known as?

proteaceae

78

What do flowers look like in proteaceae?

they look like cones and are found on spikes

4 petal-like tepals

4 stamens

1 long protruding carpel

79

What do banksia trees look like?

Woody shrubs

Leaf are serrated ararnged in spirals and whorls

Flowers produce lots of nectar

Flowers are arranged on spikes

80

What do rhamaceae flowers look like?

Clusters of true flowers subtended by bracts

4 - 5 sepals +-petals free, floral tube resemble tubular calyx.

inferior ovary

1 - 5 carpels

K(5) C(5) A5 G(-2)

81

What family are rutaceae?

Citrus family

82

What do rutaceae flowers look like?

4 - 5 sepals, free or fused

4 - 5 petals, free or fused (some Correa)

8 - 10 stamens in 2 whorls

5 - 5 carpels free at base fused at the top

Superior ovary

83

What do rutaceae fruit look like?

Drupes with leathery outside

84

Which Australian families are monocots?

Cyperaceae

Iridaceae

Junaceae

Xanthorrhoeaceae

85

What do cyperaceae flowers look like?

Actinomorphic or zygomorphic

1 bract, 1 lemma, 1 palea

1 - 3 stamens free

Ovary superior, 2 carpels, 1 locular, 1 ovule, 2 styles, 2 stigma

P0-6 A1-3 G0

86

What type of fruit do cyperaceae produce?

Dry caryopsis

87

What do iridaceae flowers look like?

Bisexual, actinomorphic or zygomorphic

6 tepals, free or fused, in 2 whorles of 3's

3 stamens, on 1 side of style

Ovary inferior, 3 carpels, 3 locular

88

What do junaceae flowers look like?

6 tepals in 2 whorls of 3's

3 - 6 stamens, epipetalous

Ovary superior

P3+3 A3+3 G1_

89

What type of fruit do junaceae produce?

Dry capsule

90

What do xanthoraceae flowers look like?

Actinomorphic, bisexual

6 tepals, free or fused, in 2 whorls of 3's

6 stamens

Ovary is superior, 3 carpels, 1 -3 locular

91

What kind of fruit do xsanthoraceae produce?

Capsule or berry