Flashcards in Lecture 1 DA Algae Deck (81):
Where did plants originate from?
Do non-plant life have chlorophyll?
Are all plants involved in photosynthesis?
What did most land plants evolve from?
Ancestral green algae.
What did most marine plants evolve from?
Ancestral red algae.
Are green algae multyi-cellular?
Are cyanobacteria considered to be plants?
No, theyre classified as bacteria.
What is the colour of plants based on the depth of water?
Green at the surface, and towards brown and red as you go deeper.
What are the three sailinity types and their concentrations?
Fresh - 0ppm
Brackish - 0.5-30ppm
Sea - 30-50ppm
What are the 5 types of classification for algae?
Cell wall composition
What is the strongest wavelength?
What is the most common phytoplankton?
What is the architecture of datoms?
Unicellular or colonial
Are diatoms motile?
What types of raphe do diatoms have, and which is best for floating?
Centric or pennate
Centric is best for floating
Why can diatoms be used as an indicator for fresh water (2)?
They have pH sensitivity, and sink with poor nutrient conditions.
Do diatoms produce toxins?
How do diatoms reproduce?
What are diatoms encased in?
What colour are chrysophyra?
What salinity can chrysophyta live in and are they motile?
Mostly fresh water.
Can be both motile or non-motile.
How can chrysophyta be used as a clean water indicator?
They grow better in clean water and bloom with high nutrients.
How do chrysophyta reproduce?
What is the architecture of chrysophyta?
Unicellular, colonial and siphonous (hollow tubular colony)
Are green algae always green?
No, some have other pigments
What are the three main classes of green algae?
Are green algae motile?
Only with flagella
What is the architecture of green algae?
Colonial or unicellular
What class do desmids fall under (green algae)?
How can charophyceae be used as a fresh water indicator?
They have reduced numbers in dirty water.
What is the structure of green algae?
2 filamentous forms, branched and unbranched
Basal filaments hold upright filaments, which also branch
Can also be siphonous - hollow tubes, have large ends called utricles
In green algae reproduction, which is larger, male or females?
What is the importance of chlorophytes (3)?
What do cyanobacteria produce for nitrogen fixation?
Are cyanobacteria motile?
Yes, they are motile by gliding
What is the structure of cyanobacteria?
Filamentous with a gelatinous sheath.
What is the food product of cyanobacteria?
In what environment do cyanobacteria thrive in?
Are cyanobacteria colonial or unicellular?
Can be both
How are cyanobacteria classified?
Branched and unbranched
Can also have true and false branching
What is characterisic of a cyanobacteria bloom (4)?
Is oily and doesn't allow light to penetrate, killing what's below
Also produces toxins
Has a bad odour
How many flagella do dinoflagellata have?
2, one is hidden inside
What are the primary producers of coral reefs, and why?
Dinoflagellates, they produce glycerol necessary for coral reef formation.
Do dinoflagellata exhibit bioluminescence?
Yes, via luciferase
Are euglenophyta colonial or unicellular?
What water type do euglenophyta live in?
Mostly fresh water
How do euglenophyta reproduce?
True or false
Euglenophyta are not phagocytic
Are euglenophyta motile?
How do euglenophyta move towards light?
What is a lorica?
A protective sheath on euglenophyta
How can euglenophyta be used as an environmental marker?
They thrive in polluted areas.
What colour are phaeophyta?
Do all phaeophyta float?
No, some can be filamentous or siphonous
What is the purpose of floating?
Allows better light access
What is characteristic of phaeophyta?
They have an air filled bladder
Where is alginic acid for agar gel use derived from?
Phaeophyta cell wall
How many cell cycles do phaeophyta have?
2, sporic meiosis and another with fucus
Describe sporic meiosis.
Has an equal number of males and female gametes, and are equal sizes.
Describe phaeophyta fucal reproduction.
Cant see the reproductive organ, male and female gametes are produced in a receptacle
What colour are rhodophyta?
Where are rhodophyta found?
Deeper in the ocean
What does rhodophyta store?
A starch compound similar to amylopectin
What are the three zones created by tidal movement?
-Littorial - above tidal zone, gets sprays, not submerged but is moist.
-Eulittorial - low/high tide mark, exposed during low tide.
-Sublittorial - below low tide, no exposure, always submerged.
What effect does the sun have on algae morphology?
Makes the colour of algae depth dependent
How does pH affect algae?
pH affects photosynthesis.
CaCO3 can precipitate at higher temperatures, changing the H+ levels and affecting photosynthesis.
What is the pH of open water?
What is the pH of rock pools?
What can be used as a high acidity indicator?
High filamentous algae levels
What can be used as an indicator for acidity due to chemicals/acid rain?
Low planktonic algae levels
Regarding the presence of algae, what happens with a pH of
Most algae and diatoms disappear
Which algae blooms with a low N:P ratio?
Which algae blooms with a high N:P ratio?
What pigments do diatoms/baccilariophyta contain (4)?
-Chlorophylls a + c (c1+c2)
What pigments do chrysophyta contain (4)?
-Chlorophylls a + c (c1+c2)
What pigments do chlorophyta contain (2)?
Chlorophyll a and b
Note - Not all are green, some have carotenoids and xanthophyll
What pigments do cyanobacteria contain (3)?
What pigments do dinoflagellata contain (3)?
What pigments do euglenophyta contain (3)?
What pigments do phaeophyta contain (4)?
-Chlorophylls a+c (c1+c2)