Lecture 1 DA Algae Flashcards Preview

Plant Diversity > Lecture 1 DA Algae > Flashcards

Flashcards in Lecture 1 DA Algae Deck (81):
1

Where did plants originate from?

Water.

2

Do non-plant life have chlorophyll?

Yes.

3

Are all plants involved in photosynthesis?

Yes.

4

What did most land plants evolve from?

Ancestral green algae.

5

What did most marine plants evolve from?

Ancestral red algae.

6

Are green algae multyi-cellular?

Yes.

7

Are cyanobacteria considered to be plants?

No, theyre classified as bacteria.

8

What is the colour of plants based on the depth of water?

Green at the surface, and towards brown and red as you go deeper.

9

What are the three sailinity types and their concentrations?

Fresh - 0ppm
Brackish - 0.5-30ppm
Sea - 30-50ppm

10

What are the 5 types of classification for algae?

Pigment
Chloroplast structure
Food storage
Cell wall composition
Flagellation

11

What is the strongest wavelength?

Green

12

What is the most common phytoplankton?

Diatom/bacillariophyta

13

What is the architecture of datoms?

Unicellular or colonial

14

Are diatoms motile?

No.

15

What types of raphe do diatoms have, and which is best for floating?

Centric or pennate
Centric is best for floating

16

Why can diatoms be used as an indicator for fresh water (2)?

They have pH sensitivity, and sink with poor nutrient conditions.

17

Do diatoms produce toxins?

Some do

18

How do diatoms reproduce?

Asexually

19

What are diatoms encased in?

Frustule

20

What colour are chrysophyra?

golden

21

What salinity can chrysophyta live in and are they motile?

Mostly fresh water.
Can be both motile or non-motile.

22

How can chrysophyta be used as a clean water indicator?

They grow better in clean water and bloom with high nutrients.

23

How do chrysophyta reproduce?

Asexually

24

What is the architecture of chrysophyta?

Unicellular, colonial and siphonous (hollow tubular colony)

25

Are green algae always green?

No, some have other pigments

26

What are the three main classes of green algae?

Chlorophyceae
Ulvophyceae
Charophyceae

27

Are green algae motile?

Only with flagella

28

What is the architecture of green algae?

Colonial or unicellular

29

What class do desmids fall under (green algae)?

Charophyceae

30

How can charophyceae be used as a fresh water indicator?

They have reduced numbers in dirty water.

31

What is the structure of green algae?

2 filamentous forms, branched and unbranched
Basal filaments hold upright filaments, which also branch
Can also be siphonous - hollow tubes, have large ends called utricles

32

In green algae reproduction, which is larger, male or females?

Females

33

What is the importance of chlorophytes (3)?

Food source
Coral reefs
Pollution indicators

34

What do cyanobacteria produce for nitrogen fixation?

Heterocysts

35

Are cyanobacteria motile?

Yes, they are motile by gliding

36

What is the structure of cyanobacteria?

Filamentous with a gelatinous sheath.

37

What is the food product of cyanobacteria?

Glycogen

38

In what environment do cyanobacteria thrive in?

Nitrogen-rich

39

Are cyanobacteria colonial or unicellular?

Can be both

40

How are cyanobacteria classified?

Branched and unbranched
Can also have true and false branching

41

What is characterisic of a cyanobacteria bloom (4)?

Is oily and doesn't allow light to penetrate, killing what's below
Also produces toxins
Has a bad odour

42

How many flagella do dinoflagellata have?

2, one is hidden inside

43

What are the primary producers of coral reefs, and why?

Dinoflagellates, they produce glycerol necessary for coral reef formation.

44

Do dinoflagellata exhibit bioluminescence?

Yes, via luciferase

45

Are euglenophyta colonial or unicellular?

Mostly unicellular

46

What water type do euglenophyta live in?

Mostly fresh water

47

How do euglenophyta reproduce?

Asexually

48

True or false
Euglenophyta are not phagocytic

False

49

Are euglenophyta motile?

Yes

50

How do euglenophyta move towards light?

An eyespot.

51

What is a lorica?

A protective sheath on euglenophyta

52

How can euglenophyta be used as an environmental marker?

They thrive in polluted areas.

53

What colour are phaeophyta?

Brown

54

Do all phaeophyta float?

No, some can be filamentous or siphonous

55

What is the purpose of floating?

Allows better light access

56

What is characteristic of phaeophyta?

They have an air filled bladder

57

Where is alginic acid for agar gel use derived from?

Phaeophyta cell wall

58

How many cell cycles do phaeophyta have?

2, sporic meiosis and another with fucus

59

Describe sporic meiosis.

Has an equal number of males and female gametes, and are equal sizes.

60

Describe phaeophyta fucal reproduction.

Cant see the reproductive organ, male and female gametes are produced in a receptacle

61

What colour are rhodophyta?

Red

62

Where are rhodophyta found?

Deeper in the ocean

63

What does rhodophyta store?

A starch compound similar to amylopectin

64

What are the three zones created by tidal movement?

-Littorial - above tidal zone, gets sprays, not submerged but is moist.
-Eulittorial - low/high tide mark, exposed during low tide.
-Sublittorial - below low tide, no exposure, always submerged.

65

What effect does the sun have on algae morphology?

Makes the colour of algae depth dependent

66

How does pH affect algae?

pH affects photosynthesis.
CaCO3 can precipitate at higher temperatures, changing the H+ levels and affecting photosynthesis.

67

What is the pH of open water?

~8.2

68

What is the pH of rock pools?

>9

69

What can be used as a high acidity indicator?

High filamentous algae levels

70

What can be used as an indicator for acidity due to chemicals/acid rain?

Low planktonic algae levels

71

Regarding the presence of algae, what happens with a pH of

Most algae and diatoms disappear

72

Which algae blooms with a low N:P ratio?

Cyanobacteria

73

Which algae blooms with a high N:P ratio?

Green flagellate/diatoms

74

What pigments do diatoms/baccilariophyta contain (4)?

-Chlorophylls a + c (c1+c2)
-Fucoxanthin (carotenoid)

75

What pigments do chrysophyta contain (4)?

-Chlorophylls a + c (c1+c2)
-Fucoxanthin (carotenoid)

76

What pigments do chlorophyta contain (2)?

Chlorophyll a and b
Note - Not all are green, some have carotenoids and xanthophyll

77

What pigments do cyanobacteria contain (3)?

-Chlorophyll a
-Phycobillin (2)
--Phycocyanin-blue
--Phycoerythrin

78

What pigments do dinoflagellata contain (3)?

-Chlorophylls a+c2
-Peridinin (carotenoid)

79

What pigments do euglenophyta contain (3)?

-Chlorophylls a+b
-Carotenoids

80

What pigments do phaeophyta contain (4)?

-Chlorophylls a+c (c1+c2)
-Fucoxanthin (carotenoid)

81

What pigments do rhodophyta contain (4)?

-Chlorophyll a
-Carotenoids
-Phycobilins
--R-phycoerythrin
--R-phycocyanin