Flashcards in Lecture 9 DA Deck (119):
What are the 10 important plant families?
Apiaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Dicot, umbellifers (carrots, dill, celery, anise etc).
Asteraceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Brassicaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Cucurbitaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Dicot, curcurbits (pumpkins, cucumbers, zucchini etc).
Fabaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Dicot, legumes (peanuts, peas, lentils etc).
Liliaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Orchidaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Poaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Rosaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Solanaceae, dicot or monocot? Give common name.
Between dicots and monocots, which has more representatives? Which takes more land to cultivate?
Dicots have more representatives, but monocots take more cultivated land.
What is the growth habit of apiaceae? Do they produce wood? What kind of plants are they?
Herbs mostly. No wood. Shrubs or trees mostly.
What is the vegetative morphology of apiaceae? What are the stems like?
Annual, biennial, or perennial.
Generally hollow stems or internodes.
What are apiaceae leaves like? Do they smell? What is distinctive of apiaceae?
Variable, alternate, upper leaves nearly opposite. Are simple/compound. Are armoatic, smell like aniseed, distinctive of this group.
What is the flower morphology of apiaceae?
Simple or compound umbel, small flowers.
Are apiaceae hetero or bisexual? Are they zygomoprhic or actinomorphic?
They have bisexual flowers. Are actinomorphic.
What is the calyx of apiaceae like?
What is the floral formula for apiaceae? List the number of petals, sepals, inferior/superior gynoecium etc.
5 petals, sepals and stamens,
Inferior gynoceium, and 2 carpels.
Floral formula is K5 C5 A5 G(2) – 2 is overlined
What is the fruit of apiaceae like?
Dry, indehiscent schizocarp.
Splits to 2 mericarps containing a single seed, at maturity.
How are apiaceae seeds dispersed?
What is the endosperm of apiaceae like, and why?
Oily, used to tap into nutrients before becoming photosynthetic.
What is the growth habit of asteraceae? Do they produce wood?
Herbs mostly, no wood.
What kind of plants are asteraceae?
Shrubs, trees, and rarely vines.
What is the leaf morphology of asteraceae?
Alternate, or basal rosette mostly, some opposite, or whorled, rarely. Simple or compound leaves.
Are asteraceae stipulate or exstipulate? What is the lamina like?
Exstipulate mostly, rarely stipulate.
What is the distinguishing feature of asteraceae?
Produces latex (milk).
What is the flower morphology of asteraceae? What is the entire flower head called?
Has unique modified flowers called florets, condensed on a receptacle. Flower head called capitulum.
What are the asteraceae flower heads surrounded by?
What ar the floret types for asteraceae? Where are each found, and what are they like?
Tubular (disc) or ligulate (ray)
Tubular - petals join up to become a corolla, mostly 5, sometimes 4.
Ligulate - petals join up to become a banner, 2 fused petals, called a ligule.
Ligular are on the outside rim, tubular on the inside.
Do asteraceae florets (both) have an inferior or superior gynoecium? Are they sessile?
Have inferior gynoecium, and are sessile, no stalk.
Are tubular florets perfect flowers? What about ligulate? Why?
Tubular florets are perfect, as they have both stamens and stigma.
Ligulate are not, because they are only female, no pollen.
What does the asteraceae family usually have? What is its purpose, and where is it derived from?
Papus, hair-like, allowing flight. Derived from the calyx.
What are heterogamous and homogamous flowers in asteraceae?
Heterogamous - has ligulate and tubular.
Homogamous - has ligulate only (ligulate) or tubulate only (discoid), not both.
Are the flowers of asteraceae unisex or bisex?
Can be bisex, unisex or sterile.
What are the fruit of asteraceae like?
Seeds are indehiscent, cypsela common, drupe is rare.
What is the habit of brassicaceae like?
Annual or perennial.
Herb mostly, in temperate climate.
What is the leaf shape, arrangements and characteristics of brassicaeae?
Simple or dissected.
Alternate or exstipulate.
Sharp taste, unpleasant odour.
What is the floral formula of brassicaceae?
K4 C4 A6 G(2) (2 is underlined)
What is the flower morphology of brassicaceae?
Bisexual, actinomorphic, has racemes.
Corolla has 4 petals, cross-like.
What is distinguishing of brassicaeae (flowers)?
Corolla has 4 petals, cross-like, and is distinct.
What is the fruit morphology of brassicaeae like?
Dry, dehiscent, 2 lateral valves, with central septum called replum.
Can be silque (long), silicle (short) or nut (rare).
What is the growth habit of curcurbitaceae?
Vines mostly, in tropic or subtropic.
What are the leaves of curcurbitaceae like?
Exstipulate, palmately lobed.
What are the flowers of curcurbitaceae like?
Yellow or white, 5 petals, dio or monoecious.
What are the fruit of curcurbitaceae like?
Fruits are berries - pepo.
What is the growth habit of fabaceae like?
Trees, shrubs, herbs, vines.
What is the leaf sharacteristics of fabaceae like?
Mostly alternate, some whorled or opposite.
Compound (trifoliate or bipennate) or some simple.
Stipulate mostly, some exstipulate.
What are the three subfamilies of fabaceae?
What are the floral characteristics of Caesalpinioideae?
Free sepals, free petals, zygomorphic
What are the floral characteristics of Mimosoideae?
Fused sepals, petals fused to corolla, actinomorphic
What are the floral characteristics of Papilionoideae?
Fused sepals, free petals and fused, zygomorphic
What are the floral characteristics of fabaceae?
Bisex, or unisex.
5 fused sepals, 5 free petals, and fused.
Have united posterior petal called keel.
Whar are the structures of fabaceae flowers called?
1 upper petal called banner
2 adjacent petals called wings
2 bottom petals fused, called keel, containing fused or free stamen
What is distinct of fabaceae (flower)?
5 fused sepals, 5 petals, free and fused.
What are the fruit of fabaceae like (4)?
Legume mostly, follicle, achene, drupe.
Dry, dehiscent, split along 2 sutures.
What are the most important and second most important families?
What is the vegetative morphology of liliaceae?
Habit - herbaceous, non succulent
What is the flower structure of liliaceae?
Actinomorphic, mostly bisex, few unisex.
6 tepals, free or fused, 2 whorlsof 3's.
What are the fruits of liliaceae like?
Dehiscent capsule or berry.
What is the largest flowering plant?
What are the habitats of orchidaceae like?
Very diverse, cosmopolitan, desert-glaciers etc.
What are the growth habits of orchidaceae like?
What are the important subfamilies of orchidaceae?
Orchidaceae and epidendroideae
What are the growth types of orchidaceae?
Sympodial, grows from many shoots - common.
Monopodial - grows from one shoot, less common.
What are the leaf characteristics of orchidaceae?
Parallel veins, sheathed, exstipulate, simple.
Single or multiple, alternate on stems, spirally arranged, leathery.
Do all orchidaceae have leaves?
No, some are achlorophyllous, rely on fungus (mycoheterotrophic).
What are the leaf characteristics of orchidaceae?
Zygomorphic mostly, few actinomorphic.
3 petaloid sepals, free or fused,
3 petaloid sepals in inner whorl, 2 petals, 1 modified labellum.
Inferior gynoecium, 3 united carpels.
How have the orchidaceae flwoers evolved?
Deception, mimicry, precopulatory flowers, entrapment.
What is the fruit morphology of orchidaceae?
3-6 horizontal slits, seeds very small.
How do orchidaceae disperse seeds?
Do orchidaceae seeds have endosperms? How do they get nutrients?
No, symbiotic with fungus.
What is the growth habit of poaceae?
Which family is a major producer of oxygen?
Poaceae floral formula?
P2 A3 G(2) (underlined g2)
What can be attributed to the ecological sucess of poaceae?
Asexual features - regeneration from blade.
Abundant floret masses produced.
What are some adaptation features of poaceae?
Leaf physiology, carbon fixation, C3 grasses for cool season, C4 for hot season.
What are stoloniferous and rhizomatous stems, and which family uses them?
Used by poaceae, stoloniferous stems are above ground horizontal runners for vegetative reproduction.
Rhizomatous are the same, but below ground.
What is the inflorescnece of a poaceae? What do they have?
Spikelet. Each has single or multiple florets.
What are glumes, and for which family?
They are 2 bracts that cover the spikelet of poaceae.
What are awns, and what family are they typically found on?
Hair/bristle like structures on poaceae
What are palea, and lemma, and which family are they found? What are their positions relative to each other?
Palea is internal, and upper.
Lemma is lower and external.
They are both additional inner scales/bracts in poaceae.
What are culms, and what family?
Hollow jointed stems, in poaceae.
What are the leaf structure of poaceae?
Simple, long narrow leaf, growth from a base, and alternate.
What venation do poaceae leaves have?
Do poaceae exhibit sheathing?
Yes, sheathed base with overlapping margins.
What are the ear-like growths of poaceae called?
What is a ligule in poaceae?
Do poaceae have a superior or inferior gynoecium?
What is the floral arrangement of poaceae?
Bisex mostly, maize are unisex.
What is the fruit morphology of poaceae?
Simple, dry fruit, indehiscent, from a single carpel.
What is a caryopsis?
What is unique to the poaceae family?
Do the poaceae have a seed coat? What is its relation to the pericarp?
Yes, it is fused to the pericarp.
What is the floral formula for rosaceae?
K5 C5 A∞ G1-∞
What are the inflorescence types of rosaceae?
Solitary or multiple.
What is the floral arrangement of rosaceae flowers?
What is the floral structure of rosaceae?
5 petals, 5 sepals, joined on a receptacle.
Do rosaceae have bracts?
They may, look like petals, and are cuplike.
What is meant by hybridisation?
What are the three subfamilies of rosaceae?
What are the fruits of pomoideae like?
Pome, accessory fruit.
What are the fruits of prunoideae like?
Single seeded, simple
What are the fruits of rosoideae like?
Achene or drupelet fruit
What is the habitat type of solanaceae?
Herbs, shrubs, trees, vines, often prickly.
Are solonaceae cosmopolitan?
Are all solanaceae toxic or edible?
Some parts are toxis, some are edible.
What is the leaf morphology of solanaceae like?
Simple or compounded (ternate or pinnate), with hairy surface.
What is the lamina of solanaceae like?
Dissected or entire.
What is the leaf arrangement of solanaceae like?
Alternate, or subopposite.
Are solanaceae stipulate or exstipulate?
What ar ethe floral arrangements of solanaceae like?
Flower in 5's, sometimes 3-9.
Are solanaceae flowers zygomorphic or actinomorphic?
Actinomorphic, sometimes zygomatic.
What are the sepals and petals of solanaceae like?
Fused into a tube, calyx and corolla.
What is the floral structure of solanaceae like?
Mostly bisex, rarely unisex.
Do solanaceae have a superior or inferior ovary?
What is the fruit of solanaceae like?
Dehiscent or indehiscent.
Capsule and berry is common.
Drupes are rare.
What is the floral formula o solanaceae?
K(5) C(5) A(5) G(2)
G2 is underlined
overline connecting C and A