Flashcards in Lecture 8.23.16 - Elderly Development Deck (33):
The number of people over age ___ is increasing greatly.
Between 2000 and 2050, the number of older people is projected to increase by ___%.
The population aged 85 and over is projected to increase by ___%.
What are the two major reasons for the increased elderly population?
1. Reduced death rates for children and young adults
2. Reduced death rates for the population aged 65-84
What are the consequences of the increased elderly population?
1. Economic: fewer people supporting more people
2. Social/Political: prioritizing resources
3. Healthcare: chronic disease rather than acute illness, workforce issues, long term care
True or false - aging is a disease.
False - aging is a normal and inevitable process.
What are the physical changes to the skin that occur during aging?
-Hair thinning and greying
-Wrinkles due to decreased elasticity and decreased subdermal fat
-More fragile and injury-prone
-Less effective barrier against infection and UV light
-Decreased sweat and sebaceous gland activity leads to dryer skin
-Decreased sensitivity to touch and vibration - can be injured more easily
What are the physical changes to vision that occur during aging?
-Iris more rigid, lens more elastic, leads to presbyopia (difficulty focusing on near objects)
-Pupil smaller and less responsive, more sensitive to glare, harder to adjust to changes
-Decreased sensitivity of retinal cell, less sensitive to contrasts in color
-Decreased visual acuity and peripheral vision - implications for driving
What is difficulty focusing on near objects?
What are the physical changes in hearing that occur during aging?
-Difficulty with higher frequencies
-Difficulty with speech discrimination
-May interfere with communication and contribute to isolation
-May interfere with medical care
-Risk factor for delirium and dementia
What are the physical changes to taste and smell that occur during aging?
-May not detect dangerous odors
-Decreased appetite and pleasure in food
-Increased use of salt and sugar
What are the physical changes to the hematopoietic system that occur during aging?
-Loss of bone marrow mass and increase in fat
-Marrow is less responsive to changes like hypoxia or blood loss
-Platelets are less responsive and increased clotting factors (pro-coagulant state)
-Impaired functioning of some white cells leads to a decline in immune function and increases in infection, cancer, and autoimmune disease
What are the physical changes to the GI system that occur during aging?
-Increased risk for tooth decay, potential for malnutrition
-Changes in esophageal muscle and peristalsis, leading to increased reflux
-Altered colon mobility, leading to constipation, diverticulosis
-Decreased liver mass, hepatic blood flow, P450, leads to slowed hepatic metabolism, can affect medications
What are the physical changes to the renal system that occur during aging?
-Decreased renal mass, blood flow, and function, leading to decreased creatinine clearance, can influence medications
What are the physical changes to the cardiovascular system that occur during aging?
-Left ventricular hypertrophy
-Stiffening of large arteries
-Decrease in heart rate and blood pressure variability
-Decrease in intrinsic heart rate and maximum heart rate
-Increase in cardiovascular disease states like coronary artery disease and hypertension
What are the physical changes to the respiratory system that occur during aging?
-Chest wall thickening and decreased compliance
-Decreased surface area for gas exchange, decreased arterial oxygenation, decreased functional reserve
-Reduced effectiveness of cough and mucociliary clearance
-Predisposed to hypoxia and pneumonia
What are the physical changes to the GU system that occur during aging?
-Decreased detrusor contractility, bladder capacitiy, flow rate, increased rates of incontinence
-Changes in urethra related to decreased estrogen (predispose women to UTI)
-Vaginal atrophy and dryness related to decreased estrogen (influence sexual function in women)
-Decreased sperm count and motility, prostate enlargement, more difficulty with erectile function in men
What are the physical changes to the musculoskeletal system that occur during aging?
-Decreased muscle mass, increased body fat, leads to changes in mobility and balance, contributes to insulin resistance, changes volume of distribution for drugs
-Decreased bone mass leads to increased risk for fracture
What are the cognitive changes that occur during aging?
-Slowed information processing
-More difficulty with divided attention and switching tasks (implications for driving)
-Able to sustain attention
-Speech and language processing largely intact, discourse skills may improve
What are the memory changes that occur during aging?
-Decine in working memory
-Impairments in episodic memory (encoding, storage, retrieval)
-Semantic, autobiographical, and procedural memory generally preserved
True or false - basic personality traits stay stable with age.
Heinz Kohut felt older adults have to deal with ___ injuries as they adapt to physical, psychological, and social losses.
Erikson viewed psychosocial development as continuing...
...over the course of a lifespan.
What are some of the mental health issues involved in aging?
Grief/bereavement, anxiety (most common in elderly), depression, substance abuse, suicide
True or false - depression is a normal part of aging.
___% of older adults experience significant depressive symtpoms.
___ is more common with some medical illnesses and affects overall mortality.
Up to ___% of older adults abuse substances.
Those over age 65 with moderate to heavy alcohol use are ___ times more likely to die by suicide.
Which age group has the highest suicide rate?
Adults 65 and older
What are the 7 risk factors for suicide?
Male, caucasian, medical or mental illness, substance abuse, prior attempt, isolation, access to lethal means
Successful aging involves shifting away from conversations about ___ and ___.