Flashcards in Lecture 8.16.16 - Adolescent Development Deck (39):
Adolescence involves a confusing mix of ___ and ___.
What is adolescence?
Period between onset of physical changes of puberty until adoption of the "adult role"
What is the defined age range of adolescence?
What is emerging adulthood?
The period between adolescence and adulthood
What is the progression from the way a child thinks to the way an adult thinks?
What type of development involves the formation of the social, emotional, and moral selves?
What are some of the developmental tasks and challenges for adolescents?
1. Achievement of biological and sexual maturation
2. Development of personal identity
3. Achieve a comfortable sense of self (body image, self-image, sexual identity)
4. Vocational identity
5. Win acceptance of peers
6. Establishment of independence and autonomy in the context of the sociocultural environment
7. Develop the capacity to love a person and be intimate
8. Achieve an effective value/moral system
What is physical development during the adolescent period?
What is the period at the beginning of adolescence when the sex glands become functional and the secondary sexual characteristics emerge?
What are the Sexual Maturity or Tanner Stages?
Stage 1: Genitalia and associated structures are the same as childhood
Stage 2: Scant, straight pubic hair, testes enlarge, scrotum develops texture, slight elevation of breast tissue in girls
Stage 3: Pubic hair spreads over the pubis and becomes curly, penis increases in length and testes enlarge, breasts enlarge
Stage 4: Penis increases in width, glans develop, scrotal skin darkens, and areola rises above the rest of the breast in girls
Stage 5: Male and female genitalia are like adults, pubic hair spreads to thighs, areola is no longer elevated above the breast in girls
What are the primary sex characteristics?
Body organs and reproductive structures and functions that differ between men and women
What are the secondary sex characteristics?
Characteristics of the body that are caused by hormonal changes during puberty and last through adult life (changes in genitals, breast, voice, hair)
The physical and psychological aspects of adolescent development are ___.
Physical changes demand ___; it is a normative stress.
True or false - there are variable rates of maturation and they are all normal.
___ development refers to changes in how people think.
Adolescence marks the beginning development of ___ thinking processes, moving away from ___ thinking.
What are the two types of adolescent egocentrism?
Personal fable and imaginary audience
What is the belief held by many adolescents telling them that they are special and unique, so much so that none of life's difficulties or problems will affect them regardless of their behavior?
What is the belief that multitudes of people are enthusiastically listening to or watching him or her?
What is identity?
The answer to the question, "Who am I?"; Mature self definition;
What is the uncertainty and discomfort adolescents experience when searching for an individual and societal role?
Identity includes two concepts - what are they?
What is the set of beliefs one has about oneself?
What is the evaluation of how one feels about one's self-concept?
What are the 4 identity statuses proposed by James Marcia?
1. Identity achievement: both searching and committed
2. Identity diffusion: neither searching nor committed
3. Identity moratorium: searching, not committed
4. Identity foreclosure: not searching, committed
Adolescence is bio-medically the "healthiest" period of the life span, yet overall morbidity and mortality rates increase 200-300% from childhood to late adolescence. Why?
Behavioral risk factors for the most common adult diseases begin during this period
What are three protective factors of adolescents?
Social support, sense of safety and security, and rules/boundaries/limitations
What are the developmental concerns, cognitive changes, social changes, and sexual changes associated with early adolescence (11-14)?
Developmental concerns: Body image, friendships
Cognitive: Concrete thought
Social: start of emotional separation from parents, start of strong peer identification
Sexual: increased awareness of sexual feelings
What are the developmental concerns, cognitive changes, social changes, and sexual changes associated with middle adolescence (14-17)?
Developmental concerns: independence, identity, ideas/morality
Cognitive: emergence of abstract thought, questioning mores of family, society
Social: stronger emotional separation from parents and strong peer identification
Sexual: interest and initiation of relationships and behaviors, sexual identity awareness
What are the developmental concerns, cognitive changes, social changes, and sexual changes associated with late adolescence (17-21)?
Developmental concerns: vocational plans, intimacy
Cognitive: complex abstract thinking, ability to think independently
Social: social autonomy, ability to form intimate relationships
Sexual: solidification of sexual identity, intimacy
True or false - most structural brain development is not completed by early childhood; changes occur through the early 20s.
Which portion of the brain matures first?
The back of the brain; pathways originating from sensory and motor regions mature earlier than frontal areas associated with executive functions.
Describe the developmental asynchrony in puberty.
Rapid physical, endocrine, and social changes create early affective motivations and challenges. Development of affect regulation and maturation of cognitive/self-control skills occurs later
75% of deaths of adolescents are from the 3 most common - what are these?
Accidents, homicide, and suicide
The most common reasons that adolescents need health care are...
...psychiatric problems, pregnancy and related problems, STIs, substance use/abuse, obesity and eating disorders
How do providers evaluate the developmental status of their teen patients and screen for possible risks to health?
The generally accepted method is to carry on a broad discussion of their life domains. Use the HEADS mnemonic:
H - Home environment
E - Education
A - Activities
D - Drugs
S - Sexuality
*Can be expanded to include Eating, Affect/Anxiety, Safety, and Suicide
What are some barriers to service of adolescents in the healthcare system?
Lack of age appropriate sites for care, lack of confidential sites for care, lack of provider training in adolescent medical problems, belief that adolescents are "generally healthy" and don't need services, less compelled to come in for services, care is time-consuming, unfavorable reimbursements for providers