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Flashcards in lecture FINAL Deck (239):
1

igneous rock that has rapid cooling

basalt

2

Nonsilicate mineral

sulphur

3

Mafic silicate mineral

pyroxene

4

The most dominant rock associated with our continents

granite

5

Mineral that will form clay minerals as it weathers

potassium feldspar

6

Extrusive igneous feature associated with felsic, gaseous, material

composite volcano

7

intrusive igneous feature that crosscuts through country rock

dike

8

Extrusive igneous feature not particularly dangerous or explosive

shield volcano

9

Intrusive igneous feature that arches sedimentary rock

laccolith

10

First mineral to crystallize, according to Bowen’s Reaction Series

olivine

11

Vesicular igneous rock formed from felsic magma

pumice

12

Nonsilicate mineral in the carbonate group

dolomite

13

Mineral with sheet silicate structure

muscovite

14

Nonsilicate mineral in the native element group

graphite

15

Forms chain structures in cooling felsic magma

silica

16

discordant tabular intrusive igneous feature

dike

17

the most dominant rock associated with oceanic crust

basalt

18

Extrusive igneous feature associated with violent eruptions

composite volcano

19

First mineral to crystallize, according to Bowen’s Reaction Series

olivine

20

First mineral to crystallize, according to Bowen’s Reaction Series

olivine

21

The doctrine of ______ held that the major features of the surface of the earth were created by sudden, short-lived, violent events that no longer occur.


a. the big bang theory
b. plate tectonics
c. uniformitarianism
d. catastrophism

catastrophism

22

Which type of volcanic hazard consists of saturated volcanic material moving rapidly down a slope?


a. Volcanic ash
b. Lahar
c. Pyroclastic flow
d. Lava flow

lahar

23

The Earth’s internal heat engine causes hot rocks in the mantle to _____________, whereas colder rocks tend to _____________.


a. contract and rise; expand and sink
b. expand and rise; contract and sink
c. expand and sink; contract and rise
d. move laterally; stay stationary

expand and rise; contract and sink

24

Which of the following is not a force which drives plate motion?


a. Slab pull
b. Gravitational forces from the sun
c. Ridge push
d. Convective flow

gravitational forces from the sun

25

How long has the continental crust been evolving?


a. over the last 1 million years
b. over the last 2 billion years
c. over the last 4000 years
d. over the last 4 billion years

over the last 4 billion years

26

Where are the majority of transform faults located?


a. Southern California
b. On the ocean floor offsetting segments of oceanic ridge
c. Radiating from convergent boundaries as stress fractures

on the ocean floor offsetting segments of oceanic ridge

27

Which of the following is not a geologic hazard?


a. Poor construction materials cause a cracked foundation
b. Volcanic eruptions sending lava flows toward a city
c. Deforestation on a floodplain increasing the severity of river floods causing flooding of towns
d. An earthquake destroying a bridge

poor construction materials cause a cracked foundation

28

The ______ is characterized by physical properties and comprises the crust and uppermost mantle.


a. asthenosphere
b. lithosphere
c. outer core
d. inner core

lithosphere

29

What property of the crust allowed it to form as the exterior of Earth?


a. Magma at the surface cooled and crystallized before anything in the interior
b. Materials that make up the crust are less dense and rose to the top
c. Churning and upheaval in the interior thrust crustal rocks toward the surface
d. Meteorites impacting Earth deposited this material at the surface

materials that make up the crust are less dense and rose to the top

30

Which of the following elements is not abundant in the Earth’s crust?


a. oxygen
b. silicon
c. aluminum
d. uranium

uranium

31

The three major classes of rock are known as:


a. crustal, subcrustal, and transitional
b. sedimentary, igneous, and
metamorphic
c. volcanic, plutonic, and transitional
d. weathered, eroded, and cemented

sedimentary, igneous, and metamorphic

32

Sedimentary rocks are formed from igneous rocks beginning with the process of _____.


a. erosion
b. crystallization
c. weathering
d. transportation

weathering

33

Which of the following is a type of lava flow that has a ropey, smooth surface?


a. Block lava flow
b. Pahoehoe flow
c. Pillow lava
d. Aa flow

pahoehoe flow

34

Which of the following textures would be the most common texture found in pillow lava?


a. Aphanitic
b. Pyroclastic
c. Porphyritic
d. Phaneritic

aphanitic

35

Which type of convergence will create a volcanic island arc?


a. Oceanic-Continental
b. Oceanic-Oceanic
c. Continental-Continental
d. Hydrosphere-Atmosphere

oceanic-oceanic

36

Which of the following would decrease the viscosity of magma?


a. An increase in the slope of the volcanic
flank
b. A decrease in silica content
c. A decrease in temperature
d. An increase in dissolved gasses

a decrease in silica content

37

________ is when iron particles in lavas align their magnetic fields with magnetic north, preserving a record of that pole's location at that moment in time.


a. Mantle Plume
b. Paleomagnetism
c. Magnetic Reversal
d. Seafloor Spreading

paleomagnetism

38

. A ________ is a solid, naturally occurring, cohesive substance composed of minerals or mineral-like materials.


a. Tetrahedron
b. Mineral
c. Rock
d. Mixture

rock

39

_____ is a chemical weathering process which is accelerated by _____.


a. Oxidation; the presence of water
b. Oxidation; cool temperatures
c. Sheeting; ice
d. Frost wedging; cold temperatures

oxidation; the presence of water

40

What role does water have in the origin of magma within the earth?


a. Water reduces friction between atoms
b. Water reduces pressure on rock
c. Water reduces the melting point of rock
d. Water does not exist in rocks at depth within the earth

water reduces pressure on rock

41

Which mineral class makes up most igneous rocks?


a. Carbonates
b. Sulfides
c. Silicates
d. Halides

silicates

42

What is the charge of a single proton?


a. +1
b. -1
c. +2
d. -3

+1

43

Diamond and graphite are ______.


a. polymorphs
b. both composed of carbon atoms and the same hardness
c. polymorphs and the same hardness
d. polymorphs and both composed of carbon atoms

polymorphs and both composed of carbon atoms

44

A(n) ___ is a tentative explanation, whereas a(n) ____ has survived extensive scrutiny over many years and is in all likelihood true.


a. theory; observation
b. hypothesis; theory
c. theory; hypothesis
d. observation; hypothesis

hypothesis; theory

45

The Dust Bowl had profound ________.

a. psychological effects on people living in
the areas affected
b. wind erosion
c. economic impacts
d. all of the above

all of the above

46

Volcanic ash from an eruption settles on the ground and forms the volcanic rock _____.


a. pegmatite
b. tuff
c. volcanic breccias
d. basalt

tuff

47

Volcanic ash from an eruption settles on the ground and forms the volcanic rock _____.


a. pegmatite
b. tuff
c. volcanic breccias
d. basalt

tuff

48

true or false

Crystal settling can change the composition of a magma body

true

49

true or false

Parent material is the primary factor that causes differences among soils

false

50

true of false

a convergent plate boundary will always remain an area of plate convergence throughout geologic time

false

51

true or false

Wegener’s proposal that gravitational forces from the Sun and Moon could move continents was widely accepted by the scientific community

false

52

true or false

Mineral color is less reliable than streak color for mineral identification

true

53

true or false

Marble, which is composed of the mineral calcite, is easily dissolved by acid rain.

true

54

true or false

O, A, and C horizons make up the solum (true soil)

false

55

true or false

A mineral is solid, naturally occurring, and organic, with an unorderly crystalline structure, and definite chemical
composition.

false

56

true or false

Frost wedging and salt crystal growth are mechanical weathering agents which enlarge cracks in rock

true

57

true or false

The atmosphere is affected by volcanic eruptions

true

58

Which of the following textures would be the most common texture found in a batholith?


a. Aphanitic
b. Pyroclastic
c. Porphyritic
d. Phaneritic

phaneritic

59

James Hutton was a scientist who developed the idea of _______ to explain the slow, steady changes responsible for shaping the Earth.


a. Uniformity
b. The Big Bang Theory
c. Plate Tectonics
d. Uniformitarianism

uniformitarianism

60

Which type of volcanic hazard can decrease global temperatures?


a. Volcanic ash
b. Lahar
c. Pyroclastic flow
d. Lava flow

volcanic ash

61

A typical rate of seafloor spreading in the Atlantic Ocean is ________.


a. 2 meters per year
b. 20 feet per year
c. 2 centimeters per year
d. 5 miles per year

two centimeters per year

62

Earth is unique among terrestrial planets in that it________.


a. has liquid water at its surface
b. has an active system of (plate)
tectonics
c. supports a biosphere
d. all of these are unique attributes of
Earth

all of these are unique attributes of Earth

63

_____ are the two primary factors that affect the rate of weathering.


a. Climate and rock location
b. Water and rock type
c. Climate and rock type
d. Altitude and rock location

climate and rock type

64

The Earth’s lithosphere is comprised of the:


a. crust and uppermost mantle
b. core and mantle
c. asthenosphere
d. uppermost mantle

crust and uppermost mantle

65

_____ is a chemical weathering process which releases iron for oxidation.


a. Oxidation
b. Frost wedging
c. Biological activity
d. Hydrolysis

hydrolosis

66

Which type of convergence will result in a continental volcanic arc?


a. Oceanic-Continental
b. Oceanic-Oceanic
c. Continental-Continental
d. Hydrosphere-Atmosphere

oceanic continental

67

________ is a material's resistance to flowing.


a. Viscosity
b. Volatiles
c. Composition
d. Quiescent

viscosity

68

________ bonding links silicon to oxygen atoms in a silica-oxygen tetrahedron.


a. Metallic
b. Ionic
c. Hybrid
d. Covalent

covalent

69

Select the choice below that best describes the role of volatiles in an ascending magma.


a. Volatiles will reduce the pressure
b. Volatiles will force the magma to contract as it rises
c. Volatiles will shatter surrounding rocks, making it easier for the magma to rise
d. Volatiles will expand with decreasing pressure, carrying the melt upward

will expand with decreasing pressure, carrying the melt upward

70

Steno’s Law refers to _____.


a. the way a mineral cleaves
b. the fact that angles between crystal faces are consistent for a specific mineral
c. the way a mineral fractures
d. the presence of water reducing the melting point of a rock

the fact that angles between crystal faces are consistent for a specific mineral

71

What is the source of Earth’s internal heat?


a. The sun
b. Radioactive breakdown
c. Leftover heat from Earth’s formation
d. b and c

b and c

72

Igneous rocks and metamorphic rocks derived from igneous "parents" make up what percentage of the
Earth's crust?


a. 50%
b. 95%
c. 82%
d. 75%

95%

73

true or false

Magma is composed of mobile ions of elements, crystals of silicates, and volatiles

true

74

true or false

The jigsaw fit of the continents was used by Wegener to support the continental drift hypothesis

true

75

true or false

Dissolution is a physical weathering process

false

76

true or false

Sheet silicate structure will affect the cleavage properties of a mineral

true

77

true or false


Soil taxonomy is the process by which soil is eroded.

false

78

true or false

The four spheres on Earth operate independently from each other

false

79

Metamorphic rock with non-foliated texture

hornfels

80

Type of metamorphism involving continental collision

regional

81

Dating method used by archeologists

carbon 14

82

Earthquake hazard

landslides

83

Sedimentary rock composed of angular detrital fragments

breccia

84

Foliated metamorphic rock formed from mid-grade metamorphism

schist

85

Layer known as the “graveyard” of subducted oceanic lithosphere

D"

86

Sedimentary rock that exhibits fissility

shale

87

Flat topped seamount

guyot

88

Area where submarine canyons are found

continental slope

89

Which of the following is the term for the processes which collectively form a mountain belt?


a. diagenesis
b. thrust faulting
c. orogenesis
d. folding

orogenesis

90

Why is shale, the most abundant sedimentary rock, often overlooked in the landscape?


a. Soil doesn’t form well from shale
b. Shale is darker in color and blends in
c. Shale is less resistant to weathering and forms gentle slopes
d. Shale looks like limestone and sandstone

shale is less resistant to weathering and forms gentle slopes

91

________ is a high grade foliated metamorphic rock while _______ is the highest grade of metamorphic rock.


a. Slate; gneiss
b. Gneiss; migmatite
c. Shale; gneiss
d. Gneiss; phyllite

gneiss, migmatite

92

Which of the following agents of metamorphism would create a foliated metamorphic rock?


a. Differential stress
b. Confining pressure
c. Chemically active fluids
d. Heat

differential stress

93

A Benioff earthquake zone is significant in plate tectonics theory because it:


a. locates rift valleys on continents
b. traces the descent of subducting sea-floor lithospheric slabs
c. indicates the location of magma chambers
d. coincides with mid-oceanic ridges

traces the descent of sea-floor lithospheric slabs

94

If increasing heat and pressure change bituminous coal into anthracite, the rock has changed from a(n) __________ rock into a(n) _________ rock.


a. black; purple
b. sedimentary; metamorphic
c. igneous, metamorphic
d. sedimentary; igneous

sedimentary; metamorphic

95

Forms when a subducting oceanic plate is very cold, old, and dense.


a. accretionary wedge
b. deep ocean trench
c. passive margin
d. shallow ocean trench

deep ocean trench

96

In what kind of environment would a conglomerate form?


a. Beach
b. Stream valley
c. Alluvial fan
d. All of the above

all of the above

97

Which of the following geologic formations is the oldest?


a. K
b. F
c. C
d. L

C

98

Which of the following geologic events is the youngest?


a. Deposition of H
b. Faulting at J
c. Deposition of B
d. Erosion between formations F and E

faulting at J

99

The fault labeled J in the cross section is what kind of fault?


a. Dip-slip Normal
b. Dip-slip Reverse
c. Strike-slip Normal
d. Strike-slip Reverse

dip-slip reverse

100

The unconformity in the areas above formation E is an example of what type of unconformity?


a. Angular unconformity
b. Nonconformity
c. Disconformity
d. Inconformity

disconformity

101

You know that dike M must be younger than pluton K because of which geologic principle?


a. Superposition
b. Original Horizontality
c. Inclusions
d. Cross cutting relationships

cross cutting relationships

102

Which of the following is not a method by which heat flows or is generated within the Earth?


a. Convection
b. Conduction
c. Radioactive decay
d. Radiation

radiation

103

What is the primary difficulty in assigning NUMERICAL dates to the geologic time scale?


a. Not all rocks can be relatively age dated
b. Not all rocks have fossils
c. Not all rocks can be dated by numerical methods
d. Not all rocks are subject to the rule of superposition

not all rocks can be dated by numerical methods

104

Earth’s magnetic field is generated by which of the following?


a. Convection cells within the mantle
b. Subducting oceanic crust
c. Spiraling flow in the liquid outer core
d. The Earth doesn’t have a magnetic field

spiraling flow in the liquid outer core

105

Which of the following could make up the material that forms a chemical sedimentary rock?


a. Gravel and sand
b. Interbedded rock gypsum and rock salt
c. Shell fragments
d. Bituminous coal

interbedded rock gypsum and rock salt

106

Which factor contributes to ductile deformation?


a. High confining pressure
b. Low confining pressure
c. Low temperature
d. Rapid application of differential stress

high confining pressure

107

What type of structure is shown in the geologic block diagram to the
right?
a. Anticline
b. Syncline
c. Dome
d. Monocline

monocline

108

________ accounts for greater ocean depths moving away from the oceanic ridge toward the deep ocean basin.


a. Thermal expansion
b. Thermal contraction
c. Convection
d. Conduction

thermal contraction

109

In a ________ fault, the hanging wall moves down relative to the footwall because of _______ stress.


a. reverse; compressional
b. normal; compressional
c. reverse; tensional
d. normal; tensional

normal; tensional

110

If each formation on the map is a different Period, what is the MOST likely age of the rocks in the center of the structure (darkest color on the map)?


a. Cambrian
b. Permian
c. Tertiary
d. Pennsylvanian

permian

111

What type of geologic structure is shown in the geologic map?


a. Plunging Anticline
b. Plunging Syncline
c. Normal Fault
d. Reverse Fault

plunging anticline

112

Which of the following best describes the general relationship between the velocity of seismic waves and depth in Earth?


a. The velocity of seismic waves is the same until they reach the outer core, when they speed up.
b. The velocity of seismic waves decreases through rigid material
c. The velocity of seismic waves generally decreases with depth.
d. The velocity of seismic waves generally increases with depth

the velocity of seismic waves generally increases with depth

113

Which of the following might be seen where strike-slip movement has occurred?


a. A fault scarp
b. Mountains from the upward motion of the footwall
c. A large region of subsidence from the hanging wall block moving down
d. Offset fences

offset fences

114

What are the characteristics of an index fossil?


a. Found only in small geographic areas and over short time spans
b. Found only in large geographic areas and over short time spans
c. Found only in large geographic areas and over long time spans
d. Found only in small geographic areas and over long time spans

found only in large geographic areas and over short time spans

115

In an ophiolite complex, what is the composition of the layer above the sheeted dike complex?


a. Gabbro
b. Pillow basalt
c. Deep sea sediments and sedimentary rocks
d. Limestone

pillow basalt

116

How do geologists infer the orientation of rock structures that are mainly below Earth’s surface?


a. Geologists dig mines underground to directly study the orientation of rock layers.
b. After measuring the strike and dip of several outcrops within an area, geologists graphically present
these data in the form of geologic maps.
c. Geologists only describe rock structures that they can see and say that there is no data for rock
structures that cannot directly be seen.
d. Geologists drill a core into several layers of rock strata every few feet and then sketch a cross section of
underground rock layers by comparing the cores.

after measuring the strike and dip of several outcrops within an area, geologists graphically present these data in the form of geologic maps

117

Generally speaking, which seismic waves will have the smallest amplitude on a seismogram and will arrive first to a seismic station?

a. P-waves
b. S-waves
c. Surface waves
d. Surf waves

p-waves

118

The highest magnitude earthquakes typically occur ______.


a. at divergent plate boundaries
b. on megathrust faults
c. near oceanic ridges
d. in the stable interior of continents

on megathrust faults

119

true or false

Index minerals can be used to understand the temperature and pressure conditions during metamorphism.

true

120

true or false

The record of life in geologic past is not biased because all kinds of organisms are preserved in sedimentary rock.

false

121

true or false

The inference that the Earth’s outer core is liquid comes
from surface wave shadow zones

false

122

true or false

Brazil's steel industry was encouraged to switch from using coal to using charcoal because charcoal from plantation forests is carbon neutral and analysts thought the change would improve the environment.

true

123

true or false

An asymmetrical fold has limbs that are mirror images of
each other

false

124

true or false

The epicenter is the location on the surface of the Earth
directly above the hypocenter of an earthquake.

true

125

true or false

The first sign of a tsunami's approach is a rapid retreat of water from the shoreline

true

126

true or false

Normal faults are associated with basin and range
topography

true

127

true or false

Paleoseismology allows geologists to make accurate shortrange earthquake predictions.

false

128

true or false


Metamorphic rocks formed around an intrusive magma
body via contact metamorphism have varying degrees of thickness and composition.

true

129

Metamorphic rock with non-foliated texture

marble

130

Type of metamorphism involving meteorites

impact

131

Especially hazardous to man-made earthen dams

seiches

132

Sedimentary rock which is composed of calcite

limestone

133

Island feature indicative of a volcano subsiding

atoll

134

Boundary between the crust and the mantle

moho

135

Zone where two continents are welded together

suture

136

Area that accumulates deep–sea fan deposits

continental rise

137

Deep features associated with convergent plate boundaries

deep ocean trenches

138

Which of the following makes up the sediment that forms an organic sedimentary rock?


a. Gravel and sand
b. Shells and plant fibers
c. Dissolved minerals
d. Weathered ions

shells and plant fibers

139

________ is a low grade foliated metamorphic rock and _______ is a high grade foliated metamorphic rock.


a. Schist; gneiss
b. Gneiss; slate
c. Shale; slate
d. Slate; gneiss

slate; gneiss

140

Which of the following methods of transportation will result in the coarsest sorting (poorest sorting)?


a. Waves on a beach
b. Streams
c. Glaciers
d. Wind

glaciers

141

Which of the following best describes the appearance and composition of a conglomerate?


a. Angular fragments; well sorted
b. Rounded fragments; poorly sorted
c. Angular fragments; poorly sorted
d. Rounded fragments; well sorted

rounded fragments; poorly sorted

142

Which of the following does not describe the texture of nonclastic chemical sedimentary rocks?


a. Sandy
b. Crystalline
c. Microcrystalline
d. Evaporite

sandy

143

Which of the following geologic formations is the
oldest?


a. A
b. B
c. L
d. E

E

144

picture ^
Which of the following geologic events is the
youngest?


a. Deposition of E
b. Erosion at S
c. Intrusion of B
d. Faulting at F

erosion at S

145

What type of fault (at F) is shown in the cross section?


a. Dip-slip Normal
b. Dip-slip Reverse
c. Strike-slip Normal
d. Strike-slip Reverse

dip-slip normal

146

The erosional surface at G is an example of what type of unconformity?


a. Angular unconformity
b. Nonconformity
c. Disconformity
d. Inconformity

angular unconformity

147

Which of the following diagrams shows how foliation could develop in a rock due to compression (the compression is shown with arrows)?

A

148

Which type of metamorphism will be generated by confining pressure?


a. Contact
b. Hydrothermal
c. Burial
d. Regional

burial

149

Metamorphism can lead to changes in ______.


a. Mineralogy
b. Texture
c. Chemical Composition
d. All of the above

all of the above

150

If increasing heat and pressure change bituminous coal into anthracite, the rock has changed from a(n) __________ rock into a(n) _________ rock.


a. black; purple
b. sedimentary; metamorphic
c. igneous, metamorphic
d. sedimentary; igneous

sedimentary; metamorphic

151

Which conditions favor fossil preservation?


a. The organism is made of only soft parts and was buried slowly
b. The organism has hard parts and was buried slowly
c. The organism has hard parts and was buried quickly
d. The organism is made of only soft parts and was buried quickly

the organism has hard parts and was buried quickly

152

What are the three types of sedimentary rocks?

a. detrital, organic, porphyritic
b. intrusive, extrusive, felsic
c. detrital, chemical, organic
d. foliated, nonfoliated, contact

detrital, chemical, organic

153

What is the primary difficulty in assigning NUMERICAL dates to the geologic time scale?


a. Not all rocks can be relatively age dated
b. Not all rocks have fossils
c. Not all rocks can be dated by numerical methods
d. Not all rocks are subject to the rule of superposition

not all rocks can be dated by numerical methods

154

Geologic Cross Section. Name the feature illustrated below.


a. Monocline
b. Anticline
c. Overturned
d. Syncline

anticline

155

What contributes to the ductile deformation of a rock?


a. Complete melting and slowly increasing differential pressure on the rock
b. Increasing temperature of the rock and slowly increasing differential pressure on the rock
c. Increasing temperature of the rock only
d. Quickly increasing differential pressure on the rock

increasing temperature of the rock and slowly increasing differential pressure on the rock

156

What type of structure is shown on the geologic map below?

a. Dome
b. Basin
c. Anticline
d. Syncline

basin

157

In a ________ fault, the hanging wall moves up relative to the footwall because of _______ stress.


a. reverse; compressional
b. normal; compressional
c. reverse; tensional
d. normal; tensional

reverse; compressional

158

All of the following are characteristic of P-waves, EXCEPT:

a. The fastest of the seismic waves, and typically the first to reach a seismometer after an earthquake
b. Movement of wave is compressional
c. Rocks vibrate back and forth parallel to the direction of wave propagation
d. Can only travel through solids (not liquids)

can only travel through solids (not liquids)

159

What is the minimum number of seismic stations needed to record the epicenter of an earthquake?


a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4

3

160

Generally speaking, which seismic waves will have the greatest amplitude on a seismogram and will arrive last to a seismic station?


a. P-waves
b. S-waves
c. Surface waves
d. Surf waves

surface waves

161

What type of geologic structure is shown in the
geologic map?


a. Plunging Anticline
b. Plunging Syncline
c. Normal Fault
d. Reverse Fault

plunging syncline

162

If each formation on the map is a different Period,
what is the MOST likely age of the rocks in the
center of the structure (darkest color on the map)?


a. Cambrian
b. Pennsylvanian
c. Mississippian
d. Pennsylvanian

mississippian

163

Long-range earthquake predictions can be made by seismologists by:


a. Observing long-term changes in groundwater levels
b. Identifying and counting aftershocks
c. Identifying seismic gaps
d. Observing animal behavior

identifying seismic gaps

164

An earthquake has just occurred in your hometown! As you walk the streets with your new geologic knowledge, you notice that some buildings have tilted or appear to have sunk into the ground, but have not completely collapsed. What process is the most likely cause for your observations?


a. Tsunami
b. Aftershocks
c. Liquefaction
d. Solifluction

liquefaction

165

The speed of a seismic wave as the wave travels through Earth’s layers depends on ____.


a. The temperature of the material
b. The composition of the material
c. The amount of gas in the material
d. The temperature and composition of
the material

the temperature and composition of the material

166

true or false

Multiple terrains accreted onto the continental crust of the northwest coast of North America

true

167

true or false

As mountains continue to rise in elevation, the processes of erosion and mass wasting are reduced.

false

168

true or false

Chert, petrified wood, and agate are chemical sedimentary rocks composed primarily of quartz

true

169

true or false

the focus is the spot in earth where rock slippage ends when an earthquake ends.

false

170

true or false


The D″ layer is known as the “graveyard” of subducted continental lithosphere

true

171

true or false

Reverse faults are associated with divergent plate boundaries

false

172

true or false

Horsts and grabens are bounded by sets of normal faults.

true

173

Over time, mass wasting causes __________


a. Canyons to widen
b. Canyons to incise
c. Terrain to become more steep
d. Canyons to become more narrow

canyons to widen

174

__________ is not a trigger for mass wasting


a. Oversteepening of a slope
b. Adding water to sediments
c. Water flowing in a stream
d. An earthquake

water flowing in a stream

175

Which would increase stream flow velocity?


a. Decreasing the gradient
b. Having a narrow, deep channel
c. Having a small drainage basin
d. Having many boulders in the bed of the channel

having a narrow, deep channel

176

true or false

When a stream enters a large body of water, capacity and competence decrease.

true

177

For a meandering stream, the majority of deposition occurs __________


a. At waterfalls
b. In the point bar
c. In the cut bank
d. At the outside of a bend

in the point bar

178

true or false

A natural levee is a ridge of flood deposits far from a river channel.

false

179

What type of drainage pattern develops on isolated volcanic peaks:


a. Radial
b. Rectangular
c. Dendritic
d. Trellis (Piracy)

radial

180

Which type of flooding occurs in north flowing rivers in the Northern Hemisphere with the onset of spring?


a. Regional
b. Flash
c. Ice-jam
d. Dam failure

ice jam

181

What is infiltration:


a. Plants taking in water
b. The transition from liquid to gas from higher temperatures
c. Water soaking into the ground
d. Water running into a channel

water soaking into the ground

182

In a disconnected losing stream, ____________.


a. Water table is lower than stream surface and is in contact with the stream bed
b. Water table is lower than the stream surface and is separated from the bed
c. Water table is higher than the stream surface and is in contact with the stream bed
d. Water table is higher than the stream surface and is separated from the bed

water table is lower than the stream surface and is separated from the bed

183

Which of the following has the highest permeability?


a. Basalt
b. Limestone
c. Sandstone
d. Non-fractured granite

limestone

184

In order for an aquifer to be useful for human consumption, what kind of porosity and permeability should it have?


a. High porosity and low permeability
b. Low porosity and low permeability
c. High porosity and high permeability
d. Low porosity and low permeability

high porosity and high permeability

185

When would the cone of depression stop enlarging?


a. When the amount of water flowing toward the well is greater than the amount being pumped out
b. The amount of water flowing away from the well is greater than the amount being pumped out
c. When the amount of water flowing toward the well is equal to the amount being pumped out
d. When the amount of water flowing away from the well is equal to the amount being pumped out

when the amount of water flowing toward the well is equal to the amount being pumped out

186

The water table will fall when _________________.


a. The well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/ drought
b. A well is pumped at a sustainable rate/ drought
c. A well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/ high precipitation
d. A well is pumped at a sustainable rate/ high precipitation

the well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/drought

187

true or false

marine terraces are indicative of a submergent coastline

false

188

which of the following statements about a mineral reserve is FALSE?

a. The valuable element in the reverse must have a high enough concentration to be mined profitably
b. Does not change over time
c. Can change with improvements in technology
d. Can change with economic changes

does not change over time

189

which kind of rock would be an ideal cap rock?

a. shale
b. limestone
c. sandstone
d. conglomerate

shale

190

Surface feature created by wind erosion

blowout

191

Outflow of water where an aquitard intersects with the land surface

spring

192

Wind blown silt sized sediment

loess

193

Product of a debris flow in an arid environment

alluvial fan

194

Occurs in regions underlain by permafros

soliflucation

195

Type of mass wasting that produces a talus slope

fall

196

Type of mass wasting that involves materials moving as a viscous fluid

flow

197

Process that causes dissolution of limestone bedrock in a stream

corrosion

198

Glacial feature associated with waterfalls

hanging valleys

199

Process by which bed load is transported

saltation

200

Which of the following is a renewable resource?

a. Aluminum
b. Trees
c. Coal
d. Oil

trees

201

A rainshadow desert forms ______.

a. near glaciers
b. on the leeward side of a mountain
c. on the windward side of a mountain
d. in a high-pressure zone

on the leeward side of a mountain

202

Yosemite National Park is prone to ________ because of ________, which is a type of mechanical weathering due to the expansion and fracturing of igneous plutons when they are exposed at the surface.

a. debris slides; dissolution
b. rock falls; oxidation
c. debris slides; sheeting
d. rock falls; sheeting

rock falls; sheeting

203

What ultimately causes a spit to develop?

a. a rip current
b. The longshore current gains energy.
c. a tidal current
d. The longshore current reduces its energy.

the longshore current reduces its energy

204

Which of the following methods to counteract beach erosion do coastal scientists consider the best permanent option?

a. Jetties
b. Relocation of at-risk structures
c. Sea walls
d. Beach nourishment

relocation of at-risk structures

205

_____ is a trigger for mass wasting.

a. Oversteepening a slope
b. Adding water to sediments
c. Removing vegetation
d. All of the above

all of the above

206

Which renewable energy resource makes up the largest share of Iceland's energy?

a. Wind energy
b. Hydroelectric power
c. Tidal power
d. Geothermal energy

geothermal energy

207

For a meandering stream, the majority of erosion occurs _____.

a. In the point bar
b. In the cut bank
c. At the inside of a bend
d. No erosion occurs

in the cut bank

208

______ is the horizontal distance between successive wave crests.

a. Wave height
b. Wave period
c. Wavelength
d. Tidal height

wavelength

209

What type of drainage pattern develops on highly jointed bedrock?

a. Radial
b. Dendritic
c. Rectangular
d. Trellis

rectangular

210

What provides most ocean waves with their energy?

a. volcanic activity on the ocean floor
b. boats passing through
c. earthquakes
d. the wind

the wind

211

Of the following options, which is the most common type of chemical weathering in a desert?

a. Oxidation
b. Hydrolysis
c. Salt-crystal growth
d. Frost wedging

oxidation

212

As a river flows from headwaters to the mouth _____.


a. channel slope increases and flow velocity increases
b. channel roughness increases and discharge increases
c. flow velocity increases and channel slope decreases
d. discharge decreases and flow velocity decreases

flow velocity increases and channel slope decreases

213

What size sediment can be transported by glaciers?

a. Gravel and sediment larger than gravel
b. Only clay
c. Only silt and sand
d. All sediment sizes

all sediment sizes

214

Which of the following statements about mudflows is false?

a. Flowing mixture of debris and water
b. Generally flows along a channel
c. Dominantly course-grained material
d. Can be associated with volcanic eruptions

dominantly coarse-grained material

215

In a gaining stream, _____.


a. the stream is always disconnected from the water table by the unsaturated zone
b. groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is higher than the stream surface
c. groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is lower than the stream surface
d. streamflow adds to groundwater and the water table is lower than the stream surface

groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is higher than the stream surface

216

Which of the following is an erosional feature?

a. Dripstone
b. Stalactite
c. Stalagmite
d. Tower karst

tower karst

217

The upper boundary of the zone of wastage is ______.

a. the zone of fracture
b. the zone of plastic flow
c. the snowline
d. a region of crevasses

the snowline

218

Which of the following materials has the highest porosity?

a. Limestone
b. Sandstone
c. Non-fractured granite
d. Clay

clay

219

What is the name of bowl-shaped depression at the head of a valley glacier?

a. Arête
b. Cirque
c. Horn
d. Tarn

cirque

220

The subsurface zone in which the pore spaces are completely filled with water is called the:

a. Unsaturated zone
b. Zone of saturation
c. Capillary fringe
d. Zone of soil moisture

zone of saturation

221

Which of the following is a characteristic feature of an emergent coastline?

a. Tombolo
b. Drowned river mouth
c. Marine terrace
d. Barrier island

marine terrace

222

Which of the following can be an economically important hydrothermal deposit?

a. Placer deposits
b. Oil sands
c. Black smoker
d. Diamonds

black smoker

223

An artesian well must tap into ______.

a. crystalline bedrock
b. an aquitard
c. a perched water table
d. a confined aquifer

an aquitard

224

Using the map above, what is the aquifer’s flow direction?

a. North
b. South
c. East
d. West

east

225

Well A is 500 feet deep and well B is 200 feet deep. If well A and well B are pumped at the same rate and the rate exceeds aquifer recharge, what will happen?

a. Nothing, both wells can produce water forever
b. Both wells will go dry at the same time
c. Well A will go dry first
d. Well B will go dry first

well B will go dry first

226

true or false

During the beginning of an interglacial period, sea level will fall.

false

227

true or false

A nonflowing artesian well is drilled into a confined aquifer.

true

228

true or false

Slot canyons form in unconsolidated sediment.

false

229

true or false

isostatic uplift occurred during the last great ice age.

false

230

true or false

Slump is the slow migration of surface materials resulting from repeated expansion and contraction.

false

231

true or false

The eye wall of a hurricane is where the most intense rain and wind are located

true

232

true or false

Levees are never naturally formed.

false

233

true or false

Drainage in a swamp runs perpendicular to the main river flow direction

false

234

true or false

Geysers are more common in the western United States because igneous activity has occurred more recently in the area.

true

235

true or false

Borax and evaporate minerals are mined from playas.

true

236

Which of the following is a wind deposit?


a. Bajadas
b. Barchan dunes
c. Alluvial fan
d. Yardang

barchan dunes

237

main source of weathering and erosion in deserts

water

238

Which renewable energy resource is generated in the Great Planes?

a. Wind energy
b. Hydroelectric power
c. Tidal power
d. Geothermal energy

wind energy

239

which kind of rock would be an ideal cap rock?

a. shale
b. limestone
c. sandstone
d. conglomerate

shale