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Flashcards in lecture test 3 Deck (108):
1

Over time, mass wasting causes __________


a. Canyons to widen
b. Canyons to incise
c. Terrain to become more steep
d. Canyons to become more narrow

canyons to widen

2

__________ is not a trigger for mass wasting


a. Oversteepening of a slope
b. Adding water to sediments
c. Water flowing in a stream
d. An earthquake

water flowing in a stream

3

Which would increase stream flow velocity?


a. Decreasing the gradient
b. Having a narrow, deep channel
c. Having a small drainage basin
d. Having many boulders in the bed of the channel

having a narrow, deep channel

4

true or false

When a stream enters a large body of water, capacity and competence decrease.

true

5

For a meandering stream, the majority of deposition occurs __________


a. At waterfalls
b. In the point bar
c. In the cut bank
d. At the outside of a bend

in the point bar

6

true or false

A natural levee is a ridge of flood deposits far from a river channel.

false

7

What type of drainage pattern develops on isolated volcanic peaks:


a. Radial
b. Rectangular
c. Dendritic
d. Trellis (Piracy)

radial

8

Which type of flooding occurs in north flowing rivers in the Northern Hemisphere with the onset of spring?


a. Regional
b. Flash
c. Ice-jam
d. Dam failure

ice-jam

9

What is infiltration:


a. Plants taking in water
b. The transition from liquid to gas from higher temperatures
c. Water soaking into the ground
d. Water running into a channel

water soaking into the ground

10

In a disconnected losing stream, ____________.


a. Water table is lower than stream surface and is in contact with the stream bed
b. Water table is lower than the stream surface and is separated from the bed
c. Water table is higher than the stream surface and is in contact with the stream bed
d. Water table is higher than the stream surface and is separated from the bed

water table is lower than the stream surface and is separated from the bed

11

Which of the following has the highest permeability?


a. Basalt
b. Limestone
c. Sandstone
d. Non-fractured granite

limestone

12

In order for an aquifer to be useful for human consumption, what kind of porosity and permeability should it have?


a. High porosity and low permeability
b. Low porosity and low permeability
c. High porosity and high permeability
d. Low porosity and low permeability

high porosity and high permeability

13

When would the cone of depression stop enlarging?


a. When the amount of water flowing toward the well is greater than the amount being pumped out
b. The amount of water flowing away from the well is greater than the amount being pumped out
c. When the amount of water flowing toward the well is equal to the amount being pumped out
d. When the amount of water flowing away from the well is equal to the amount being pumped out

when the amount of water flowing toward the well is equal to the amount being pumped out

14

The water table will fall when _________________.


a. The well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/ drought
b. A well is pumped at a sustainable rate/ drought
c. A well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/ high precipitation
d. A well is pumped at a sustainable rate/ high precipitation

the well is pumped at an unsustainable rate/drought

15

true or false

marine terraces are indicative of a submergent coastline

false

16

which of the following statements about a mineral reserve is FALSE?

a. The valuable element in the reverse must have a high enough concentration to be mined profitably
b. Does not change over time
c. Can change with improvements in technology
d. Can change with economic changes

Does not change over time

17

Surface feature created by wind erosion

blowout

18

Outflow of water where an aquitard intersects with the land surface

spring

19

Wind blown silt sized sediment

loess

20

Product of a debris flow in an arid environment

alluvial fan

21

Occurs in regions underlain by permafros

solifluction

22

Type of mass wasting that produces a talus slope

fall

23

Type of mass wasting that involves materials moving as a viscous fluid

flow

24

Process that causes dissolution of limestone bedrock in a stream

corrosion

25

Glacial feature associated with waterfalls

hanging valleys

26

Process by which bed load is transported

saltation

27

Which of the following is a renewable resource?

a. Aluminum
b. Trees
c. Coal
d. Oil

trees

28

A rainshadow desert forms ______.

a. near glaciers
b. on the leeward side of a mountain
c. on the windward side of a mountain
d. in a high-pressure zone

on the leeward side of a mountain

29

Yosemite National Park is prone to ________ because of ________, which is a type of mechanical weathering due to the expansion and fracturing of igneous plutons when they are exposed at the surface.

a. debris slides; dissolution
b. rock falls; oxidation
c. debris slides; sheeting
d. rock falls; sheeting

rock falls; sheeting

30

What ultimately causes a spit to develop?

a. a rip current
b. The longshore current gains energy.
c. a tidal current
d. The longshore current reduces its energy.

the longshore current reduces its energy

31

Which of the following methods to counteract beach erosion do coastal scientists consider the best permanent option?

a. Jetties
b. Relocation of at-risk structures
c. Sea walls
d. Beach nourishment

relocation of at-risk structures

32

_____ is a trigger for mass wasting.

a. Oversteepening a slope
b. Adding water to sediments
c. Removing vegetation
d. All of the above

all of the above

33

Which renewable energy resource makes up the largest share of Iceland's energy?

a. Wind energy
b. Hydroelectric power
c. Tidal power
d. Geothermal energy

geothermal energy

34

For a meandering stream, the majority of erosion occurs _____.

a. In the point bar
b. In the cut bank
c. At the inside of a bend
d. No erosion occurs

in the cut bank

35

______ is the horizontal distance between successive wave crests.

a. Wave height
b. Wave period
c. Wavelength
d. Tidal height

wavelength

36

What type of drainage pattern develops on highly jointed bedrock?

a. Radial
b. Dendritic
c. Rectangular
d. Trellis

rectangular

37

Which of the following would increase stream flow velocity?


a. Lowering the water depth in the stream
b. Decreasing the gradient
c. Having a narrow, deep channel
d. Having many boulders in the bed of the channel

having a narrow, deep channel

38

What provides most ocean waves with their energy?

a. volcanic activity on the ocean floor
b. boats passing through
c. earthquakes
d. the wind

the wind

39

Of the following options, which is the most common type of chemical weathering in a desert?

a. Oxidation
b. Hydrolysis
c. Salt-crystal growth
d. Frost wedging

oxidation

40

As a river flows from headwaters to the mouth _____.


a. channel slope increases and flow velocity increases
b. channel roughness increases and discharge increases
c. flow velocity increases and channel slope decreases
d. discharge decreases and flow velocity decreases

flow velocity increases and channel slop decreases

41

What size sediment can be transported by glaciers?

a. Gravel and sediment larger than gravel
b. Only clay
c. Only silt and sand
d. All sediment sizes

all sediment sizes

42

Which of the following statements about mudflows is false?

a. Flowing mixture of debris and water
b. Generally flows along a channel
c. Dominantly course-grained material
d. Can be associated with volcanic eruptions

dominantly coarse-grained material

43

In a gaining stream, _____.


a. the stream is always disconnected from the water table by the unsaturated zone
b. groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is higher than the stream surface
c. groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is lower than the stream surface
d. streamflow adds to groundwater and the water table is lower than the stream surface

groundwater adds to streamflow and the water table is higher than the stream surface

44

Which of the following is an erosional feature?

a. Dripstone
b. Stalactite
c. Stalagmite
d. Tower karst

tower karst

45

The upper boundary of the zone of wastage is ______.

a. the zone of fracture
b. the zone of plastic flow
c. the snowline
d. a region of crevasses

the snowline

46

Which of the following materials has the highest porosity?

a. Limestone
b. Sandstone
c. Non-fractured granite
d. Clay

clay

47

What is the name of bowl-shaped depression at the head of a valley glacier?

a. Arête
b. Cirque
c. Horn
d. Tarn

cirque

48

The subsurface zone in which the pore spaces are completely filled with water is called the:

a. Unsaturated zone
b. Zone of saturation
c. Capillary fringe
d. Zone of soil moisture

zone of saturation

49

Which of the following is a characteristic feature of an emergent coastline?

a. Tombolo
b. Drowned river mouth
c. Marine terrace
d. Barrier island

marine terrace

50

Which of the following can be an economically important hydrothermal deposit?

a. Placer deposits
b. Oil sands
c. Black smoker
d. Diamonds

black smoker

51

An artesian well must tap into ______.

a. crystalline bedrock
b. an aquitard
c. a perched water table
d. a confined aquifer

an aquitard

52

Using the map above, what is the aquifer’s flow direction?

a. North
b. South
c. East
d. West

East

53

Well A is 500 feet deep and well B is 200 feet deep. If well A and well B are pumped at the same rate and the rate exceeds aquifer recharge, what will happen?

a. Nothing, both wells can produce water forever
b. Both wells will go dry at the same time
c. Well A will go dry first
d. Well B will go dry first

well B will go dry first

54

true or false

During the beginning of an interglacial period, sea level will fall.

false

55

true or false

A nonflowing artesian well is drilled into a confined aquifer.

true

56

true or false

Slot canyons form in unconsolidated sediment.

false

57

true or false

isostatic uplift occurred during the last great ice age.

false

58

true or false

Slump is the slow migration of surface materials resulting from repeated expansion and contraction.

false

59

true or false

The eye wall of a hurricane is where the most intense rain and wind are located

true

60

true or false

Levees are never naturally formed.

false

61

true or false

Drainage in a swamp runs perpendicular to the main river flow direction

false

62

true or false

Geysers are more common in the western United States because igneous activity has occurred more recently in the area.

true

63

true or false

Borax and evaporate minerals are mined from playas.

true

64

which kind of rock would be an ideal cap rock?

a. shale
b. limestone
c. sandstone
d. conglomerate

shale

65

main source of weathering and erosion in deserts

water

66

Which of the following is a wind deposit?


a. Bajadas
b. Barchan dunes
c. Alluvial fan
d. Yardang

barchan dunes

67

Which renewable energy resource is generated in the Great Planes?

a. Wind energy
b. Hydroelectric power
c. Tidal power
d. Geothermal energy

wind energy

68

mass wasting

makes a "V" shaped valley

plate tectonics and orogeneisis create slopes + fuel landscape development

weathering is followed by MW

MW + running water produce stream valleys

rugged mountains are subdued over geo. time

variety of topography and materials affect MW characteristics

69

classification of mass wasting processes are based on

material involved... (ex. debris, mud, earth, rock)
motion displayed... (fall, slide, flow)
velocity of movement

70

triggers

DO NOT ALWAYS NEED TRIGGERS FOR MW

saturation of materials w/ water (reduces friction)

oversteeping of slopes

removal of anchoring vegetation (natural events: forest fire "burns the ground", insect infestation; human design: farming, logging, development)

ground vibrations from earthquakes

thermal stressing

71

Infiltration

water moving into pore spaces in the ground

72

Transpiration

plants pull water from soil and release it into the atmosphere

73

Outlet

the lowest point in a drainage basin where the stream or river exits the basin

74

Factors affecting flow velocity

Gradient
Channel shape
Wetted perimeter: the area where the river is in contact with the channel (less surface area = higher velocity)
Channel size
Channel roughness
Discharge: volume of water flowing past a certain point in a given unit of time

75

A _____ is the first step to soil erosion/sediment movement

raindrop

76

Types of sediment transportation in a stream

Dissolved load (ions)
Suspended load (silt, clay)
Bedload (sand, gravel, boulders) (bouncing, sliding, rolling)

77

dissolved load- sediment transportation

ions

78

suspended load- sediment transportation

silt, clay

79

bedload- sediment transportation

sand, gravel, boulders

bouncing, sliding, rolling

80

Drainage Patterns

Dendritic: branchy
Rectangular: blocky
Radial: high point- looks like a star
Trellis: one main channel then cuts through ridges

81

dendritic drainage pattern characteristic

branchy

82

rectangular drainage pattern characteristic

blocky

83

radial drainage pattern characteristic

high point- looks like a star

84

trellis drainage pattern characteristic

one main channel then cuts through ridges

85

Ice Jam Floods

occur in north-flowing rivers in the northern hemisphere

86

Methods for reducing flood impacts:

Artificial levees
Channelization
Flood-control dams
Non-structural approach

87

______ is the largest reservoir of readily available freshwater

groundwater

88

Aquifer

rock strata or sediment that stores and transmits groundwater freely

89

Water Table

the upper limit of the zone of saturation. A subdued replica of the topography

90

gaining streams and losing streams

Gaining Streams: water table is higher than stream surface
Losing Streams: water table is lower than stream surface

91

cone of depression

water table forms a cone shape after a deep well sucks large amounts of water out of the water table.

92

artesian systems

when groundwater is under pressure

creates artesian wells

93

geysers

intermittent hot springs or fountains in which columns of water erupt with force.

Formed when superheated water in underground caverns turns to steam and rises up.

94

how many caves are there in the US?

17,000

95

two types of glaciers

Alpine: valleys of mountainous areas

Ice Sheets: on continents, large areas

96

zone of accumulation

more snow falls each winter than melts each summer

97

zone of wastage

more snow melting than accumulating

98

how much of the earths surface is covered by dry regions?

30%

99

saltation

transportation of sediment by wind, sand grains knock each other off of sand dunes

100

blowout

land surface (soil) moved to a new location

controlled by water table (lower water table, more blowout)

lowest limit of a blowout is the water table

101

what percentage of the US population lives close to a shoreline?

50%

102

emergent coast

elevated by tectonic forces

103

submergent coast

submerging former stream valleys in ocean

104

renewable resources

can be replenished by natural processes over relatively short time spans when used sustainably

105

non-renewable resources

form very slowly compared to the rate of consumption

106

examples of renewable resources

Wind
Biomass waste
Biofuels
Wood
Hydropower
Solar
Geothermal

107

examples of NONrenewable resources

Fossil fuels
Coal
Oil
Oil sands
Gas hydrates
Hydraulic fracturing (fracking)
Shale gas
Nuclear energy using Uranium 235

108

cap rock

impermeable to petroleum movement