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1

what is resistance training

a method of conditioning designed to increase one's ability to exert force

2

why is muscular fitness important

need strength for ADL
maintenance of independence throughout life span
reduce risk of osteoporosis
reduce risk of diabetes
maintain or increase lean body mass and metabolic rate

3

what is atrophy

a reduction in muscle fiber size

4

what is hypertrophy

an enlargement in muscle size

5

what is the stimulus from exercise training

change in physiology which is damage muscle
build new muscle

6

what is the physiological effects of resistance training

increased muscle mass and size of muscle fiber
increased recruitment and coordination of motor unit firing
increased strength of tendons, ligaments, and bones
improvements in blood cholesterol levels and insulin sensitivity

7

how many workouts needed to see increase in CSA

16

8

how many weeks to see noticeable change in CSA

8 weeks

9

what are the two time categories for increase in CSA

0 to 8 weeks
8+ weeks

10

from 0 to 8 weeks what are the changes

mostly gains in neurological

11

why have neural adaptations for exercise

muscle memory
better able to recruit muscles to generate a given amount of force

12

is neural adaptation specific to exercise type

yes

13

what is the time course for neural adaptations for exercise

occur quickly
occur prior to any change in the muscle itself

14

what are the neural adaptations changes

increase motor unit recruitment
increase motor unit firing freq
more synchronous motor unit recruitment
increased neuromuscular junction area
increase reflex activation
decreased golgi activation and agonist inhibition
decreased antagonist muscle activation
preferential recruitment of type 2 fibers when high forces needed quickly

15

what is similar in strength for men, women, old and young

strength gain percentage

16

strength gains are often related to levels of what

initial strength and genetic potential

17

what happens to bones and connective tissue when training

bone mineral density increases
tendons, ligaments and other connective tissue will increase

18

how do bones and connective tissue change due to exercise

collagen levels increase
need to increase to support muscle growth

19

what does FITT stand for

frequency
intensity
time
type

20

what does PROS stand for

progression
reversibility
overload
specificity

21

what does progression do with PROS

demands on body must continually increase over time in order for adaptations

22

what happens to progression as you become highly trained

slows

23

what does reversibility do with PROS

fitness improvements/ gains are lost when demands on body are lowered
can lose 50% of fitness improvements in 2 months

24

what is another name for reversibility

detraining

25

strength tends to decline faster than what

loss of muscle mass

26

what does overload do with PROS

body must exercise at a level beyond that at which its normally stressed

27

how do you manipulate an exercise program
(keep order)

increase number of reps
increase number of sets
increase freq of training sessions
decrease rest interval between sets and exercises
increase load

28

what does specificity do with PROS

body adapts to specific type and amount of stress placed on it

29

what adaptations in fitness are specific to type of training performed

muscle group used
velocity of movement and ROM needed
energy system used
total volume of training

30

what are the four types of resistance training

isometric
dynamic constant external resistance
isokinetic
plyometrics