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what are the three risk categories in a risk stratification

low risk moderate risk high risk


advantage of doubly-labeled water

very accurate measure of energy expenditure (measure CO2 production) can more easily simulate real world situations


what is validity

does it truly measure or capture physical activity, is it precise or accurate


what is the second objective looked for in medical review

symptoms that suggest underlying chronic disease such as angina shortness of breath dizziness or syncope palpitations or tachy ankle edema


how is intensity defined

% of VO2 max % of VO2 reserve % of HR max % of HR reserve METS- metabolic equivalent


what defines moderate risk

men > 45 women > 55 asymptomatic 2 or more CVD risk factors


what is in a health appraisal

identify possible medical problems characteristics that increase risk of health problems signs or symptoms indicative of health problems lifestyle behaviors related to positive or negative health fitness test results


high risk can do what kind of exercise

need DR consent


disadvantages of heart rate measuring

not an actual measure of energy expenditure must be recorded very often fluctuates based upon many factors such as mood, eating, stress, etc


what are the advantages of direct calorimetry

single best measure of energy expenditure b/c it measures heat production very accurate


do we still see natural selection today



what kind of medications should fitness professionals be able to identify

high blood pressure cholesterol blood sugar


advantages of self report

easy to use inexpensive can be used with a large sample of people acceptable correlation to other measures


disadvantages of self report

must rely on subjects to remember activities and be truthful difficult to assess intensity of activity need different questionnaires for different groups of people


how can we measure physical activity

direct calorimetry doubled labeled water indirect calorimetry heart rate movement sensors self-report questionnaires


disadvantage of doubly-labeled water

very expensive have to closely monitor water/fluid intake must track subjects closely for 1 to 2 weeks and collect urine


what defines high risk

one or more sigs or symptoms or with known CVD, pulmonary, or metabolic disease


how do we screen for increased risk

obtain medical history perform a risk assessment/ appraisal


disadvantages of direct calorimetry

very expensive difficult to simulate real world conditions so it may not be generalizable


in fitness testing, what measurements are taken at rest

HR BP percent body fat waist circumference low back flexibility


disadvantages of movement sensors

difficult to assess intensity of activity false positives low validity


moderate risk can do what kind of exercise

moderate intensity


what are some health status evaluation categories

MR.Please medical history risk factor assessment prescribed medications level of physical activity establish need for physician consent administer and eval fitness tests set up exercise prescription eval progress with follow up tests


advantage of heart rate measuring

strong relationship between HR and energy expenditure during steady state exercise with large muscle groups relatively inexpensive can be monitored during normal activites


advantage of indirect calorimetry

accurate measure of energy expenditure (measures CO2 production)


advantage of movement sensors

quantify body movement acceptable correlation to energy expenditure inexpensive good for real world monitoring


what measurements are taken during exercise

HR BP rating of perceived exertion VO2


history of PAR-Q

developed in canada 1970 revised in 1994 should contact DR if one or more yes


what must be in a screening questionnaire

valid provide relevant and accurate info


what are the three major chronic diseases we screen for

CVD pulmonary disease metabolic disease (diabetes)