Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia Flashcards Preview

Term 4: Infectious Diseases > Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia > Flashcards

Flashcards in Legionella, Mycoplasma, Chlamydia Deck (31):
1

What are the risk factors for developing legionnaire's disease?

-smoking

-chronic lung disease

-age

-transplant status

-immunosuppression

2

What is the disadvantage for using urinary legionella antigen test for legionella?

-specific for L. pneumophila serogroup 1

-highly specific, variable sensitivity

3

How is the reproductive cycle of Chlamydia unique?

-Elementary bodies = extracellular, infects cells, phagocytosed by alveolar macrophages

-Reticulate body = intracellular, replicates inside "inclusion body," revert to EB's before burst

4

What is Lymphogranuloma venereum (LGV)? What causes it?

-STI manifesting as inguinal lymphadenopathy

-Primary = genital ulcer at site of innoculation

-Secondary = painful inguinal lymphadenopathy & groove sign

-Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

5

How are Legionella, Mycoplasma, and Chlamydia related?

-they lead to "atypical pneumonia"

6

How is atypical pneumonia characterized?

-indolent (slow growing) onset

-often extrapulmonary symptoms

-many times, normal WBC, but other lab abnormalities

-Difficult to diagnose, Gm staining not helpful

7

What is the treatment for atypical pneumonia?

-New macrolides

-respiratory fluroquinolones

8

What are the symptoms of Legionnaire's disease?

"atypical pneumonia"

-GI symptoms

-High fever

-Thrombocytopenia

-Hyponatremia

-Altered mental status often seen

9

What is Cold agglutinin disease? What causes it?

-body produces IgM that attack RBCs

-used as diagnostic test, put tube of blood on ice and blood will clump which means...

-caused by Mycoplasma infection

10

"pneumonia w/ hyponatremia & diarrhea"

Legionaires 

11

What two diseases are caused by Legionella pneumophila?

1.  Legionnaire's disease

2.  Pontiac Fever

12

What is the gram stain of legionella?

-gram (-) but needs silver stain to be visualized

13

Describe pontiac fever.  What causes it?

-headache, myalgia, fatigue, sudden onset fever and chills

-lasts for a week (self limiting)

Caused by Legionella pneumophila

14

What is the gram stain of mycoplasma?

-Neither

-does not have a cell wall

15

What is the only infectious bacteria that does not have a cell wall?

Mycoplasma

16

What antibiotics are used in the treatment of "atypical" pneumonia?  What bugs cause atypical pneumo?

Abx:

  • Macrolides
  • tetracyclines
  • quinolones

Bugs:

  • Legionella
  • Mycoplasma
  • Chlamydia

17

Why don't ß-lactams work against mycoplasma?

it doesn't have a cell wall

18

What diseases are caused by Mycoplasma?

-"walking pneumonia"

19

Who is most susceptible to mycoplasma infection?

-young adults in close quarters

*military recruits

20

"guillan-barre"

-Mycoplasma

21

What diseases are caused by Chlamydia trachomatis?

  1. Trachoma
  2. conjunctivitis (usually newborn)
  3. infant pneumonia
  4. Lymphogranuloma venereum (LVG)
  5. Reiter's syndrome (reactive arthritis)

22

What is Reiter's syndrome?  What bug causes it?

-can't see (uveitis)

-Cant pee (urethritis)

-Can't climb a tree (reactive arthritis)

Caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

23

What is trachoma?  What bug causes it?

-leading cause of preventable blindness in the world

-conjunctival infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis

-Scarring traction can pull eyelid inward so that eyelashes rub against conjunctiva

24

What is the leading preventable cause of blindness in the world?

-Trachoma

(Chlamydia trachomatis)

25

What population in the U.S. is most frequently infected with trachoma?

Native Americans

26

Why don't B-lactams work on Chlamydia species?

-they don't have peptydoglycan/muramic acid in their cell wall

27

What does Chlamydophyla psittaci cause?

-Atypical pneumonia

**carried by birds

28

What does Chlamydophila pneumoniae cause?

-atypical pneumonia

29

How are chlamydia STI infections treated?

-1 dose IM 3G cephalosporin

-followed by 7-day course of doxycycline

(covers both chlamydia and gonorrhea)

30

"groove sign"

-Lymphogranuloma venerum

-Chlamydia trachomatis

31

What are the two most common causes of pelvic inflammatory disease?

-N. gonorrhea

-C. trachomatis