Leukocyte Morphology Flashcards Preview

Clin Path > Leukocyte Morphology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Leukocyte Morphology Deck (17):
1

What are the stages of neutrophils?

Meylobalst, progranulocyte (primary granule formation) and
meylocyte (specific granule formation- neutron, eos, baso), all
belong to proliferation and maturation
• Metamyeloctye, band and segmented neutrophil- parturition only.

2

What is the normal transit time for a neutrophil out of the marrow pool?

7-10 days. With inflammation can cut down to 3-5 days. Circulating
half life is about 6-10 hours

3

when can left shift occur?

w/ neutrophilia, normal concentration of neutrophils or w/ a neutropenia. If seen w/ a neutropenia- more severe inflammatory response is occurring.

4

What does disorderly maturation tell you?

Consumption of neutrophils very severe or a neoplastic process is
present.

5

What is leukemia?

Presence of neoplastic cells in blood/ or marrow. Can be not detectable or greater than 500,000 / ul
• Leukemia’s proliferating in the spleen- almost always release into the peripheral blood but can see leukemia in bone marrow that don’t release into the blood.

6

What is a toxic change?

Accelerate rate of production seen w/ inflammation which results in
persistence of ribosomes, increased basophilic of cytoplasm, presence of dhole bodies (aggregates of the ER), cytoplasm vacuolation

7

What cause neutrophil hypersegmentation?

Increase age of the neutrophil (but can occur b/c of
corticosteroids or in vitro w/ aging of a blood film.)

8

What is neutrophil degeneration?

Neutrophils not in circulation (from cytological samples, in an abscess, airway cytology, body cavity effusion)- marked cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear swelling leading to cell lysis

9

What are some inherited neutrophil abnormalities?

• Pelger-huet anomaly- failure of neutrophils to segment- check eosinophil if they are unsegmented- it is this condition- not of clinical concern.
• Birman cat neutrophil granulation anomaly- vacuolation/granulation of neutrophils (NOT LYMPHOCYTES) in birman cat- often no clinical significance (distinct granules inside neutrophil cytoplasm.
• Chediak-higashi syndrome- large fused lysosomes (about 1/3 of the lysosome) slightly pink/eosinophilic. Tendency to bleed/ b/c platelet function not normal. (common in Persian cats)
• Lysosomal storage disorder-vacuoles in cytoplasm of lymphocytes o MPS and GM2 ganglisidosis – cytoplasmic granulation /
vacuolation.
§ GM2 ganglisosisodis Alpha mannosidosis, niemann pick
dz type A,B,C and fucosidosis- progressive neuro dz

10

What plant can cause lymphocyte vaculoaiton?

• Plant such as locoweed that contain swainsonine. – inhibition of lysosomal enzymes, resulting in the lysosomal storage dz

11

What can be seen w/ acute inflammation in ruminants?

Neutropenia-don’t have a lot in neutrophil storage pool. If see
neutropenia and a left shift in any other species- very concerned w/
severe infection.
• Neutrophil count is a balance between consumption and production

12

What is the excitement response?

Increase blood flow through microcirculation- shift of
leukocytes from marinated pool to the circulating pool b/c of epinephrine. 2 fold leukocyte concentration. LYMPHOCYTOSIS – often in cats (thoracic duct is emptying and there is splenic contraction)

13

What is the stress response?

• Lymphopenia and neutrophilia (2x increase upper reference
interval- occurs w/ illness, pain, metabolic disturbance,
corticosteroids, corticosteroid tumor.
• Cushing syndrome animals often have stress leukogram.
• DO NOT GET INCREASE IN BANDS W/ STRESS!
• DON’T CONFUSE NUETROPHILIA FROM STRESS W/
INFLAMMATION.
o Addisons dz- lack of steroid response in sick animal- don’t have lymphopenia associated w/ it.

14

If you see a lymphoblast (more than 1 on a blood film- what would you concerned w/?

Lymphoblastic leukemia. If lymphocyte count greater than 2x reference interval- probably dealing w/ a leukemia of lymphoid origin (stress wont cause it to get that high)

15

Cause of neutropenia?

• Consumption, immune mediated destruction, lack of bone marrow production (reversible- chemo, parvo,, feline pan leuk)/ irreversible- FELV)

16

Cause of lymphopenia?

• Steroid response( MOST COMMON REASON) , acute viral
infection, immunodeficiency (SCID)- rare

17

Causes of monocytosis, eosopnoohiila , basophilia?

• Monocytosis- stress/ and inflammation
• Eosinophilia- parasitisim, hypersensitivity reaction, mast cell tumor.
• Basophilia- accompanies eosinophilia