Flashcards in Leukocyte Morphology Deck (17):
What are the stages of neutrophils?
Meylobalst, progranulocyte (primary granule formation) and
meylocyte (specific granule formation- neutron, eos, baso), all
belong to proliferation and maturation
• Metamyeloctye, band and segmented neutrophil- parturition only.
What is the normal transit time for a neutrophil out of the marrow pool?
7-10 days. With inflammation can cut down to 3-5 days. Circulating
half life is about 6-10 hours
when can left shift occur?
w/ neutrophilia, normal concentration of neutrophils or w/ a neutropenia. If seen w/ a neutropenia- more severe inflammatory response is occurring.
What does disorderly maturation tell you?
Consumption of neutrophils very severe or a neoplastic process is
What is leukemia?
Presence of neoplastic cells in blood/ or marrow. Can be not detectable or greater than 500,000 / ul
• Leukemia’s proliferating in the spleen- almost always release into the peripheral blood but can see leukemia in bone marrow that don’t release into the blood.
What is a toxic change?
Accelerate rate of production seen w/ inflammation which results in
persistence of ribosomes, increased basophilic of cytoplasm, presence of dhole bodies (aggregates of the ER), cytoplasm vacuolation
What cause neutrophil hypersegmentation?
Increase age of the neutrophil (but can occur b/c of
corticosteroids or in vitro w/ aging of a blood film.)
What is neutrophil degeneration?
Neutrophils not in circulation (from cytological samples, in an abscess, airway cytology, body cavity effusion)- marked cytoplasmic vacuolation and nuclear swelling leading to cell lysis
What are some inherited neutrophil abnormalities?
• Pelger-huet anomaly- failure of neutrophils to segment- check eosinophil if they are unsegmented- it is this condition- not of clinical concern.
• Birman cat neutrophil granulation anomaly- vacuolation/granulation of neutrophils (NOT LYMPHOCYTES) in birman cat- often no clinical significance (distinct granules inside neutrophil cytoplasm.
• Chediak-higashi syndrome- large fused lysosomes (about 1/3 of the lysosome) slightly pink/eosinophilic. Tendency to bleed/ b/c platelet function not normal. (common in Persian cats)
• Lysosomal storage disorder-vacuoles in cytoplasm of lymphocytes o MPS and GM2 ganglisidosis – cytoplasmic granulation /
§ GM2 ganglisosisodis Alpha mannosidosis, niemann pick
dz type A,B,C and fucosidosis- progressive neuro dz
What plant can cause lymphocyte vaculoaiton?
• Plant such as locoweed that contain swainsonine. – inhibition of lysosomal enzymes, resulting in the lysosomal storage dz
What can be seen w/ acute inflammation in ruminants?
Neutropenia-don’t have a lot in neutrophil storage pool. If see
neutropenia and a left shift in any other species- very concerned w/
• Neutrophil count is a balance between consumption and production
What is the excitement response?
Increase blood flow through microcirculation- shift of
leukocytes from marinated pool to the circulating pool b/c of epinephrine. 2 fold leukocyte concentration. LYMPHOCYTOSIS – often in cats (thoracic duct is emptying and there is splenic contraction)
What is the stress response?
• Lymphopenia and neutrophilia (2x increase upper reference
interval- occurs w/ illness, pain, metabolic disturbance,
corticosteroids, corticosteroid tumor.
• Cushing syndrome animals often have stress leukogram.
• DO NOT GET INCREASE IN BANDS W/ STRESS!
• DON’T CONFUSE NUETROPHILIA FROM STRESS W/
o Addisons dz- lack of steroid response in sick animal- don’t have lymphopenia associated w/ it.
If you see a lymphoblast (more than 1 on a blood film- what would you concerned w/?
Lymphoblastic leukemia. If lymphocyte count greater than 2x reference interval- probably dealing w/ a leukemia of lymphoid origin (stress wont cause it to get that high)
Cause of neutropenia?
• Consumption, immune mediated destruction, lack of bone marrow production (reversible- chemo, parvo,, feline pan leuk)/ irreversible- FELV)
Cause of lymphopenia?
• Steroid response( MOST COMMON REASON) , acute viral
infection, immunodeficiency (SCID)- rare