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Flashcards in Intro Deck (60):

3 reasons for anemia:

bone marrow malfunction, hemorrhaging, hemolysis


species w/ nucleated RBC

anything not a mammal- amphibians, for ex.


Most common reason to have low lymphocyte count?

Stress- corticosteroids (endogenous/exogenous)


What endocrine disorder cause lack of stress leukogram?

Addisons dz


What endocrine disorder causes stress leukogram?

Cushings dz


What stain can you demonstrate Heinz body and reticulocytes well?

Brilliant cresyl blue shows them better than wrights.


What is a Heinz body?

Denatured hemoglobin in RBC – more about Heinz body later


What is the only thing that can cause high albumin?



What are causes of high bilirubin concentration in blood?

RBC destruction, liver problems (cholestasis/hepatic destruction), diabetes


What is Tc02?

Pretty much demonstrates your bicarb. A decrease in T co2
demonstrates a metabolic acidosis.
• Anion gapà cations have to equal anions. (NA +K)- (Bicarb + Cl) =
anion gap. Roughly around 5-15


What could clumped platelets falsely lower?

• Lower the platelet count- look at blood film to confirm.
• in addition could artificially increase the RDW


What do large platelets on a blood film represent?

That immature platelets are being released (either destruction or consumption of platelets)


What is the difference between PCV and hematocrit?

PCV-> Manually performed. Hematocrit- computerized


What is common to see w/ hemangiosarcoma (cells, clinical signs)?

Acanthocytes, shistocytes, periods of intermittent weakness ,


What can an increase in MCV represent?

Mean cell volume- Regeneration of RBC (reticulocytes)—not the
only cause


What is the order of maturation of a white blood cell?

Myelobalst, progranulocyte, myelocyte, metamylocyte, band neutrophil, mature neutrophil.


What does the demonstration of metamyelocytes represent?

Severe inflammation—should not see them out in peripheral blood


What is common to see with dogs w/ IMHA?

They have inflammatory leukograms because
o 1. Cytokine increase, or 2. Animals have necrosis related to anemia or to small clot formation seconndary to DIC.


What is specific about puppies and their TP?

Pups have slightly lower PCV and protein


Most probable cause of microcytic anemia?

Fe def. anemia (99%)- other cause- inflammatory anemia


Why would 50% of patients w/ iron deficient anemia have increase platelets?

b/c megakaryocytes are responsive to EPO due to the increase in
EPO due to the anemia.


What are some causes of bone marrow to fail?

Infectious dz, chemicals, toxin, radiation.


What will you not suspect if platelet count is less than 100,000?

That the decrease in platelets is due to bleeding – there is another underlying reason behind it


Purple top

Purple top- contains EDTA w/ potassium salt- preserves cell morphology. (if you accidentally cross contaminate w/ a red tube you can have abnormal levels- (hyperkalemic value, and hypocalcemic)


Red top

contains nothing- allow for serum to be collected


Tiger top

Tiger top (red and black)- contains a density media for separation
the serum


Green tube

Green tube- heparin- anticoag


blue top

blue top- contains citrate – coag tests


gray tube

gray tube- fluoride- inhibits glucose metabolism (every 1/2hour- there is a 10% drop in glucose in normal


when collecting blood how much should you use?

5ml for a CBC and biochem. Use a 20 G needle. Excess EDTA can
shrink cells and cause erroneous PCV and MCV


How quickly should you analyze a blood sample?

Analyze w/in 1 hr, make a blood film and refrigerate the
tube. Do not refrigerate blood film b/c it can cause cell lysis(condensation) and do not freeze. If blood out for +24 hrs- RBC swell and increase MCV


What species blood settles very quickly- making you need to mix well?

Horse blood.


What is the PCV?

Percentage of whole blood composed of RBC


What comprises the buffy coat?

Nucleated RBC, platelets, and Leukocytes


What does yellow pigmentation of plasma mean? White?

Icterus or carotene pigments in the diet. White means lipemia.


What can cause a red serum?

In vitro hemolysis


How do you measure plasma protein in practice?

w/ a refractometer


what can artificially increase the plasma protein?

lipemia, urea, cholesterol


What makes up your total plasma protein?

albumin, globulin, clotting factors


What does decreased TP and PCV decrease represent?

Blood loss


What 3 stains make up your diff quick?

alcohol (blue), eosin, (red) ethylene blue (dark blue/purple


What cells can be demonstrated at the feathered edge?

Higher density cells -> platelet clumps, microfilaria, large
neoplastic cells. (10 x objective)


Does the presence of nucleated RBC mean you have a regenerative anemia?

Presence of nucleated RBC does not demonstrate regenerative anemia- you want to see polychromatophilic cells


What virus in a pup has vomiting, diarrhea and low nucleated cell count?



What is a normal platelet count on an oil immersion field?

6-10 platelets


what is the normal concentration of Hg compared to PCV?

1/3 of PCV is the Hg concentration.


Formulate to calculate the PCV? MCHC

• (MCVx RBC) / 10
• (hg/pcv %) x 100


what does an increase in MCHC represent?

• Increase always artificial -> hemolysis, lipemia or Heinz bodies
• Decreases- Fe def. but not unless very severe. (don’t dx based on
MCHC- look at the MCV)


What are your types of cell size/counting?

Light scatter measurement(flow) or electronic cell counting


What are your normal RBC sizes (fl)

Dog-60-72, cat, horse, cow- 38-52, sheep-25-35, llama 21-29, goat 15-25


What can cause the MCV to be high?

• Often w/ agglutination (counted as megaerythroroctyes)
• What does a small RDW and large RDW represent?
small- more alike your RBC are. larger- more variation the RBC are.
increase in your RDW- population of big cells and little cells


What color do reticulocytes stain? What do you use to stain

• Polychromatic w/ wrights- clump of RBC organelles.
• New methylene blue- causes organism growth so brilliant cresyl
blue is better.


What species do not release reticulocytes?



How long does a reticulyte and a dog/ cat mature?

How long does a reticulyte and a dog/ cat mature? pg 27 in text.
• 24- 48 hr in dog.
• Cats- aggregate reticulocyte become punctate reticulocyte.
Aggregates become punctate in 12 hours. Punctate persist for 12 dayso polychromatophilic cells are demonstrated w/ wrights stain for aggregates.
o punctate and mature cells indistinguishable w/ wrights stain. o aggregate cells are counted in cats. .


What happens when a neutrophil ages?

Becomes denser/ pyknotic


what is the size of a lymphocyte in small animal?

Normal lympohcytes in small animal are slightly smaller than
neutrophil. If lympho bigger than a neutro- chance they are
neoplastic and you have a neoplasia of lymphoid tissue.


What is a lymphocyte w/ a nucleolus seen in its cytoplasm?

• lymphoblast.
• Large granular lymphocytes- have more cytoplasm.
• A larger lymphocyte w/ increase basophilia in cytoplasm referred to
as a reactive lymphocyte


What if you have LGLS?

• In large animal- common to see especially in ruminants.
• Not common in normal healthy dog. (possible seen you have
antigenic stimulation for ex) if seen in small animal or a leukemia
involving LGLS -> erlichiosis in dog can show w/ increase in LGL


What if you see howell jolly body?

It is what is left of the nucleus ->seen w/ increase in numbers. Normally they are removed by the spleen.


RBC inclusions:

• Basophilic stippling represents the spontaneous aggregation of
ribosomal RNA in the cytoplasm of erythrocytes. These aggregates stain, and hence are visible, with routine hematology stainà seen in regen. anemia, and lead poisoning (w/out anemia)
• Heinz body- degeneration of hemoglobin.
• howell jolly bodies- small fragments of non functiona nucleus not
extruded through RBC when it left the bone marrow. can mimic a parasite. found in normal cats and horses, regen anemia, poor splenic activity, erythroid dysplasia.