Test 2- Plasma and serum proteins Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2- Plasma and serum proteins Deck (26):

What are the functions of proteins?

Nutrition, enzymes, buffers colloid oncotic pressure, coagulation,
immunity, transport.


Where are proteins produced?

Most synthesized by liver. Some synthesized by immune system


What are the classification of proteins?

Total protein is albumin, globulin (alpha, beta and gamma


What is albumin?

Small but abundant molecule- 30-50% of total protein that is synthesized by liver and catabolized by all tissues. Major role is as a transport protein (calcium and mg for example) and colloidal


What are the types of globulins?

• Categorized based on electrophoretic motility?
o Alpha 1, alpha 2, beta globulins are all synthesized by liver and function in inflammation, coagulation and transport proteins.
Gamma globulins (IgG, IgM, IgA) are synthesized by
lymphoid tissue and function in immunity


What is fibrinogen?

It is a type of beta globulin and is synthesized by the liver. Functions in coagulation, and increases during inflammation (positive acute phase protein) and used as a marker in inflammation in horses, ruminants, and camelids.


What is the difference between plasma and serum

Plasma- liquid portion of blood that has not clotted. Plasma
Contains all the proteins. Put in purple, blue, or green top
tubes- (have anticlotting factors)
• Serum- liquid portion of the blood that remains after
clotting, does not contain fibrinogen. – put in red top or red
and grey top tube


How is total protein measured?

w/ a refractometer- it is an estimate! Often interered w/ lipids,
cholesterol, glucose and urea concentrations
• chemistry anaylzers- total protein measurement- using spectrophotometry it is more accurate than refractometery esp. in birds, reptiles and rabbits. It svery specificserum protein is often les than plasma protein.
o For albumin- spectrophotometry used a dye that binds to alubin.Globulin is calculated by knowing total protein and
Electrophoresis- performed at reference laboratories it separtes proteins on size and net negative charge.
o Albumin is the smalles protein, highest net negative charge compared to its size. Migrates the fastest and closest to the anode.
o Globulins are larger and do not migrate as far. Gamma globlins have the smallest negative charge and migrate the shortest distance


How can you measure fibrinogen?

3 methods- heat precipitation most common (simple, inexpensive,
use refractometry, estimate of fibrinogen)


what is specific about total protein?

• It is interpreted w/ regaurds to albumin and globulins


What are causes of hypoalbuminemia?

Decreased production- inflammation (negative acute phase
protein), liver failure or reduction in liver mass (portosystemic shunt), seere malnutrition, maldigesiton, or malabsorption, intestinal parasites.
• Abnormal loss- blood loss (hemorrhage, GI parasite- globulins as well) intestinal loss (PLE- globulins as well) ,, urinary loss (PLN) 3rd spacing (profusion), skin dz/burns


How do you determine cause of hypoalbuminemia?

Look at history, clinical signs and physical findings and then
look at lab work.


what will you see if hypoalbuminemia is due to malabsorption/maldigsiton?

May have thin BCS, ravenous appetite and other chem profiles!decrease in glucose, cholesterol, urea
o Other test- ultrasound, fecal float


What will you see if hypoalbuminemia is due to liver failure/ hepatic insufficiency or change sin other liver origin substance?

May see decrease glucose, cholesterol and urea, and may see increase in globulins b/c the liver is not filtering antigens.
o Other test- perform liver function test and look at bile acids, and ammonia.


What will you see if hyopaluminemia is caused by PLN?

Increased cholesterol usually. Perform urinalysis, and urine
protein:creatinine ratio.
If nephrotic syndrome- may see proteinuira, hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia, and ascites. Losing antithromin- may see thrombus forming


what will you see if hypoalbuminemia is due to PLE?

May see diarrhea, look at chemistry panel- decrease cholesterol, and +/- decrease in magnesium, decrease globulin
o Other tests! GI endoscopy w/ biopsy, exploratory laparotomy w/ biopsy


What is the only cause for hyperalbuminemia?



what are your main causes for hypoglobulinemia?

Decreased production (SCIDS), abnormal loss (hemorrhage, PLE) or failure of passive transfer in neonates


What are the causes for hyperglobulinemia?

Dehydration; Inflammation: (infectious-bacT, fungal, protozoal ex. K9 erlichiosis, FIP) or noninfectious- immune mediated diosrdder, necrosis; Neoplasia- plasma cell tumor/multiple myeloma, or B cell lymphoma
o Distinguish between inflammatory vs. neoplastic immunoglobulin produciotn


how do you differentiate between polyclonal gammopathy (inflammation) vs. monoclonal gammopathy (neoplasia)?

w/ polyclonal gammopathy! inflammatory responses produce a lot of different proteins. Large peak in gamma globulins. Other proteins(globulins)may spike up. Albumin is a negative acute
o If nephrotic syndrome- may see proteinuria,
hypoalbuminemia, hypercholesterolemia and ascities.
Losing antithrombin- may see thrombus forming
pahase protein! liver down regulates albumin production w/ inflammatory protein. So w/ electrophoresis you can see the decrease in albumin w/ inflammation.
• w/ monoclonal gammopathy on gel electrophoresis- wont see decrease in albumin. Only see one large peak in your gamma globulins (no other globulins changed)


what can cause panhyporpteinemia?

Blood loss and protein losing enterophathy. – as a whole the
goup so total protein move together. You lose albmuin and globulin
w/ these 2 conditions.


What are you causes of hypoalbuminemia? hypoglobulinemia?

Hypoalbuminemia! liver failure, severe malnutrition, PLN, effusion, vasculitis, skin burns, hemorrhage and PLE
• Hypoglobluinemia! SCIDS, Failure of Passive transfer, Hemorrhage, PLE


What can cause Panhyperproteinemia?



What are causes of hyperalbuminemia? Hyperlgobuminemia?

Hyperalbuminemia- dehydration
• Hyperglobulinemia! dehydration, inflammation, neoplasia.


How is fibrinogen calculated? What will you see an increase in fibrinogen?

Total protein, albumin and globulin measured in g/dl
• Fibrinogen measured in mg/dl
• Fibrinogen is a beta globulin- and increase in fibrinogen alone
usually not significant affect on total protein constraint.


What are causes of hypofibrinogenemia? Hyperfibrinogenmia?

Hypofibrinogenemia- liver failure, or DIC
• Hyperfibrinogenemia- inflammation (positive acute phase protein,
inflame cytokines increased liver synthesis of it); renal dz (cats and cattle)- through unknown mechanism-
o Usually takes 12-24 hour stos e incrase in it
Remember spectrophotometry more accurate. On report from lab- proteins measured w/ spectrophotometry