Test 2- Cytology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Test 2- Cytology Deck (26):

When you analyze fluids what do you need to observe grossly?

When you analyze fluids what do you need to observe grossly? What is involved w/ fluid analysis
• Color, clarity, odor.
• Total protein using a refractometery. Cell counter (manual or
electronic- if sediment cells if count is less than 5,000 ul)


What species has enough fluid in their abdominal cavity that you can retrieve and analyze and be w/in reference intervals?

• Horses


What are important components to body cavity fluid analysis?

What are important components to body cavity fluid analysis?
• Cell concentration, protein concentration, types of cells present- inflammatory, organisms, neoplastic


What neoplastic cells tend to float in fluids?

Exfoliate form tumors of lymphosarcoma/lymphoma or epithelia
tumors (carcinomas) o


What is the difference between transudates and exudates?

• Pure transudate is formed due to hypoabluminemia- decrease
plasma oncotic pressure
• Modified transudate is formed due to impaired blood flow or
lymph flow- increase hydrostatic pressure
• Exudate are due to increase capillary permeability (inflammation)


What properties do exudate vs transudate effusions have?

Transudate- clear, total protein less than 3 g/dl, nucleated
cell count less than 6,000/ul and no clot forms.
• Exudates -have cloudy appearance, total protein greater
than 3 g/dl, nucleated cell count greater than 6,000, and
clots form.


What can the presence of creatinine, triglyceride, bilirubin in an effusion tell you?

• Creatinine! uroabdomen look at creatinine over BUN b/c urea is more permeable and equilibrates where as creatinine is larger and takes time. (2x creatinine level in abdomen vs blood is diagnostic)
• Triglycerides -present in a chylous effusion
• Bilirubin -present in bile leakage-


What is the suggested method to perform when removing fluid from a thoracic cavity?

Using a catheter (needle can cause pneumothorax)


When aspirating into the thoracic cavity of cat, what do you want to make sure you avoid doing?

Aspirating the liver or heart. Liver can show epithelial cells in sample and can confuse for neoplasm possibly


How can you perform a slide preparation of a effusion?

Push film-similar to blood. Advantage- Big cells stage at edge.
disadvantage Often cells are broken at edge.
• Line films- similar to above, stop quickly.
• Pull films- place a drop of fluid on slide, place another slide on top,
allow drop to spread and pull gently apart. Advantage- cells spread
nicely, disadvantage- no concentration of big cells
• Cytospin preps- concentrates cells nicely (especially for CSF, but


What is a disadvantage to staining w/ diff quick?

• May not stain mast cell granules


What color do bacT stain w/ wrights.

Wrights- stain blue. Easier to visual cells than w/ gram stain. Can
be misleading- both gram – and gram + stain same color


What is the proper way to remove oil from a slide that is not fixed?

Use a detergent or instead of having to deal with it- just
permanently attach a coverslip


What cell types may you encounter in an effusion aspirate?

Always will see red cells ( but abundance can demonstrate blood in effusion)- look along w/ PCV. If PCV of effusion is >5% it be can active hemorrhage
• Neutrophils, macrophages, lymphocytes {(lymphos should be smaller than neutros- If not probably will have a lymphoma (lymphoblasts)}, plasma cells.


What are your different types of inflammation?

Suppurative (neutrophilic, predominantly neutrophils –
• Mixed (segmented, lympohcytes, macrophages, eos may be
Mononuclear (macrophages, lymphocytes- remember they have 1 nucleus)


What will your neutrophils show w/ a peritonitis?

w/ bacterial peritonitis! all neutros in peripheral blood will be put into site of inflammation – left shit neutropenia.


What can you confuse mesothelial cells with when doing a needle aspirate?

Neoplastic cells.


What are cell types encountered in neoplastic effusion?

Lymphoblasts and carcinoma cells – brought up again- its


What are your criteria for dx malignancy?

Variable nuclear size (anisokaryosis), large multiple nucleoli (if
larger than 3 micrometers in diameter you may be suspicious of
malignancy), abnormal mitoses, nuclear molding


What filamentous gram positive bacterial that can cause a bacterial pyothroax s common 2ndary to foreign body penetration?



What can you assume w/ a cat w/ abdominal effusion whose fluid
analysis demonstrates a high protein (ex 6g/dl) and low cell count
(4000 g/ul)?

FIP. Cats also have high globulins levels in blood and
present w/ vasculitits.
FIP fluid often only situation where you may have more globulin than albumin


You perform an fluid analysis from a thoracic chest tap from an adult cat w/
dyspnea. Total protein is 5 g/dl, NCC is at 9,000 g/ul. The color of the fluid is
milky. High triglyceride concentration. You note small lymphocytes. What is your dx?

Chylous effusion. w/ acute! small lymphocytes predominate. When it is longer, more inflammatory cells come into play. The fluid has a higher cholesterol:triglyceride ratio compared to that of serum.
Often 2ndary to lymphoma->Lymphoblasts
present. but could have ruptured thoracic duct.


In a hemoabdomen would you expect to see platelets?

Presence of platelets indicates blood contamination- in a hemoabodmen or hemothorax you should not see platelets.


What should your cellularity be in joint fluid analysis?

Less than 500-2000 cells/ul, less than 10% neutros. Large
mononuclear cells predominate (macros, synovial linin cells)


How do you interpret inflammatory joint fluid analysis?

• If suppurative- can be immune mediated dz
• If septic- difficult to see bacT.
• If mononuclear- degenerative dz or trauma (DJD )
o Glycosaminoglycan’s in background of slide! if don’t see the background shows diluation which is associated w/ inflammation.


• Joints:

If infectious- high cell count, usually nondengerate
neutros, typically not see the infectious agent usually
single joint
o If immune mediated- low to high cellularity, increase in
nondegenerate neutros, usually multiple joints
o Trauma- usually single joint.