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Flashcards in Limbic System -Bales Deck (23):

What is the Papez circuit? What will bilateral lesions to this circuit cause?

hippocampus → hypothalamus (mammillary body) → thalamus → cortex (cingulate) → hippocampus

open circuit*

bilateral lesions=inability to acquire new memories


What is the septal region thought to play a part in?

emotion, thirst, learning, autonomic inhibitory functions and sexuality and orgasm

Rats will stimulate this over eating or drinking!


What does the septal nuclei connect with? (5)

cingulate gyrus
habenular nuclei (stria medullaris thalami)
hypothalamus (medial forebrain bundle -MFB)
hippocampus ( fornix)
amygdala (stria terminalis)


What are the functions of the anterior and posterior cingulate cortex?

Where do these limbic fibers go?





What is Korsakoff syndrome? What symptoms will be seen?

Mammillary bodies preferentially degenerate in chronic alcoholism



Where is the entorhinal cortex?

Where does this cortex receive and send info?

anterior half of the parahippocampal gyrus (BA 28)

receives cingular fibers and inputs to the hippocampus


What seahorse shaped structure dominates the medial temporal lobe?

What are its components from bottom to top?

hippocampal formation

Bottom: subiculum (next to the entorhinal cortex) --> hippocampus proper-> dentate gyrus


What are the sectors of the hippocampus? Which layer is extremely susceptible to hypoxia-ischemia (most sensitive brain tissue)?


Layer 1 (Sommer's sector) is susceptible


What are Schaefer collaterals? What do they likely function in?

Schaefer collaterals are the hippocampus pyramidal branches that project to CA1 through the subiculum back to the entorhinal cortex to form a closed feedback loop

probably important in memory consolidation


How many synapses are in the hippocampal formation?


entorhinal cortex--> dentate granule cells (synapse 1) --> (perforant path through the subiculum)--> hippocampus pyramidal cell dendrites (CA3) (synapse 2)--> (form the alveus and the fimbria)

hippocampal pyramidal brs. (Schaefer collaterals) project to CA1 --> entorhinal cortex (synapse 3)


What does the fimbria become when it leaves the dorsal surface of the hippocampus?

the fornix


What would a hippocampal lesion cause?

anterograde amnesia (short and short to long consolidation), especially for declarative memory (facts, names, places)


Where do stimulus associations occur in the brain?



How does afferent to efferent information flow through the amygdala?

lateral --> medial


What are the 2 major efferent fiber bundles of the amygdala?

stria terminalis (to the septal area and hypothalamus)

ventral amygdalofugal pathway (to the hypothalamus and the thalamus)


What is the "mesolimbic system"?

Dopamine from the ventral tegmental area of the midbrain project to the frontal cortex and regulates emotional behavior movement


Where can some drugs of abuse modulate dopamine in the mesolimbic system?

at the VTA or at the nucleus accumbens


What is the blood supply to the amygdala?

anterior choroidal br. of ICA


What is the blood supply to the hippocampus?

branches of the PCA


What can amygdala lesions cause?

short term memory, placidity, and sexual changes

in pt SM, the amygdala is damaged bilaterally and she cannot recognize fear or show normal signs of fear


What is Klucer-Bucy syndrome and what can cause it?

Certain bilateral medial temporal lobe lesions in experimental animals produce a constellation of signs called Kluver-Bucy syndrome (K-B) including, loss of fear, compulsive oral exploratory behavior, and hypersexuality.

in humans, pts are very placid and have changes in their sexuality


What happened to pt Henry Molaison when he had a bilateral anterior medial temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy?

permanently without short-term memory for names, faces, events, etc.--> no anterograde memory

he was stuck in the past


What happened to pt Clive Wearing who developed problems with his medial temporal lobe and inferior frontal lobe after contracting HSV1 encephalitis?

he had significant retrograde memory loss and only 20 seconds of useful anterograde memory

he was stuck in the present!