LING 110 Ch 2: Linguistic Change & Structure of Language Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LING 110 Ch 2: Linguistic Change & Structure of Language Deck (46)
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1

OE is set during which period?

450 CE - 1100 CE

2

What happened in 450 CE?

The Romans left Britannia to defend Rome against the Huns & the Goths.

3

A "gloss" is a [______].

A "gloss" is a [translation].

4

The 'a' in dēma indicates [______ ______]. It marks or indicates the [______].

The 'a' in dēma indicates [nominative case]. It is a [subject] marker.

5

Languages that use case have [______ ______] word order.

Languages that use case have [relatively free] word order.

6

What are 3 differences between OE and CE?

1.
2.
3.

1. word order, e.g. in OE the verb was always at end of sentence...
2. word structure
3. written symbols

7

ME is set during which period?

1100 CE - 1500 CE

1066 (Norman invasion of Britain) to 1476

8

House of Fame was written by [______] in [______ - ______].

House of Fame was written by [Chaucer] in [1379-1380].

Soune ys noght but eyre ybroken
And every spech that ys yspoken,
Lowde or pryvee, foule or faire,
In his substaunce ys but ire

9

The word "orthography" means [______ or ______]. It's composed of [______] meaning [______] + [______] meaning [______].

The word "orthography" means [writing or spelling]. It's composed of [orthos(s)] meaning [straight/correct] + [graphia] meaning [writing].

10

A "syllabary" is [______ ... ]?

A "syllabary" is [a writing system that uses symbols to represent syllables].

11

A syllabary is only useful for languages with [______ ... ] because [______ ... ].

A syllabary is only useful for languages with [constraints on the number of syllables] because [otherwise there are too many symbols and it becomes too complex].

12

An "ideograph" is [______ ... ].

An "ideograph" is [a picture or symbol that represents a thing or idea].

13

Which 3 written characters were lost in OE orthography?

1.
2.
3.

1. ash [æ]
2. thorn [like a p with | on the left side]
3. edh [the voiced version of 'th']

14

The term "phonetics" refers to the [______ and ______ ______] of [______ ______].

The term "phonetics" refers to [the study and systematic classification of speech sounds].


15

The term "phonology" refers to the [______] of [______ ______] especially the [______ and ______] of [______ ______] in a language or two or more related languages.

The term "phonology" refers to [the science of speech sounds especially the history and theory of sound changes in a language or two or more related languages].


16

The IPA (International Phonetic Alphabet) assigns [______ ... ].

A "diacritic" is [______ ... ].

The IPA assigns [a single symbol to every speech sound].

A "diacritic" is [a symbol that guides pronunciation rather]. e.g. '~' can mean 'nasalization' or 'ç' means pronounce as 's'.

17

We describe vowels using 3 descriptors:
1. [______]
2. [______ or ______]
3. [______]

We describe vowels using 3 descriptors:
1. [height] high, mid, low, that is, how close to the top of bottom of the mouth
2. [tenseness or laxness]
3. [placement] front, middle, back, that is, how close to the front or back of the oral cavity

18

What are the 5 front vowels?
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What is the front diphthong?

6.

1. beet [i], orthographic i
2. bit, [I], small cap i
3. bait, [e], orthographic e
4. bet, [ɛ], epsilon
5. bat, [æ]

6. buy, [ay]

19

What is the middle unstressed vowel called?

about, [_], swcha

20

What are the 5 back vowels?

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

What are the two back diphthongs?

6.
7.

1. boot, [u], orthographic u
2. book, [_], upsilon
3. boat, [o], orthographic o
4. board, [_], "open o"
5. bought [a], orthographic a

6. boy, [oy]
7. bow, [aw]

21

What is the generalization rule concerning vowel raising from OE to CE?

The rule is "long mid vowels raised to high tense vowels"

22

Give two examples of the vowel raising from OE to CE, i.e. "long mid vowels raised to high tense vowels".

1.
2.

1. [ē] > [i] ... e.g.: dēma > deem...
bēte > beet... sēcan > seek...
mētan > meet... cēpan > keep

2. [ō] > [u] ... e.g.: rōt > root
hrōf > roof... mōd > mood

23

The term "morphology" means the [______ and ______] of word [______]. It's composed of [______] meaning [______] + [______] meaning [______].

The term "morphology" means [the study and description of word formation]. It's composed of [morphe] meaning [shape] and [logos] meaning [study].

24

The inflected forms "ybroken" and "yspoken" are from which period of English?

ME, Chaucer

25

The "y" replaced [______] which was an earlier form used to create the [______ ______].

The "y" replaced [ge] which was an earlier form used to create the [past participle].

26

The 6 inflections for verbs in English are:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

The 6 inflections for verbs in English are:

1. the infinitive
2. 3rd singular present tense
3. non-3rd singular present tense
4. present participle
5. past tense
6. past participle

27

Inflection changes [______ ______] of a [______] but not its [______].

Inflection changes the [grammatical function] of a [lexeme] but not it's [meaning].

28

Inflection only occurs after [______].

Inflection only occurs after [derivation].

29

CE has a lot of inflection:

True or False?

False

Languages like Russian, Finnish, Hungarian all have lots of inflection.

30

The term "lexicon" means the [______ of ______] that make up the [______ of a ______].

The term "lexicon" means the [set of words] that make up the [vocabulary of a language].