LING 110 Ch 5: Structure of Words Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LING 110 Ch 5: Structure of Words Deck (35)
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1

A word is a ...

... minimal free form.

2

The previous definition has three components that are central:

1.
2.
3.

The previous definition has three components that are central:

1. form: it's a linguistic unit
2. free: it can be used by itself
3. minimal: it is the smallest unit that can be used by itself

3

A morpheme is...

... the smallest meaningful unit in language.

4

Words can be composed of...

... morphemes.

5

A phrase is a ______ ______ but is composed of ______ .

A phrase is a [free unit] but is composed of [free units, ie words] .

...

6

compound words are...

... composed of more than one word.

7

Compounds are always written without spacing.

T or F?

False, compounds like "hot dog" are an example of this.

8

One way to diagnose a compound is through [______ ______].

One way to diagnose a compound is through [stress pattern].

9

One spelling rule that does not affect compounds is ...

... changing Y internally to I.

10

English is a [______-timed] language.

[______] differentiates multi-syllabic words from [______].

English is a [stress-timed] language.

[stress] differentiates multi-syllabic words from [phrases].

11

In multi-syllabic words, the [______] stress is on the first syllable and the [______] is on the second.

In multi-syllabic words, the [primary] stress is on the first syllable and the [secondary] is on the second.

12

Examples of compounds that are not written as one word are:

1.
2.
3.
4.

Examples of compounds that are not written as one word are:

1. police car
2. mouse pad
3. hard drive
4. hot dog

13

A word is...

... what we use when we speak or write. It is an inflected form of a lexeme.

14

A lexeme is ...

... the abstract entry in our mind.

15

Inflection is a process that ...

... adds grammatical information.

16

Grammatical information is such things as:

1.
2.
3. _____ and ______

Grammatical information is such things as:

1. plural
2. tense
3. comparative and superlative markers

17

When we are describing degrees of something we use:

1.
2.
3.

When we are describing degrees of something we use:

1. positive e.g.: red
2. comparative e.g.: redder
3. superlative e.g.: reddest

18

Word building rule = ...

... Word >> Lex + infl

19

Singular rule in English is

Word[+sg] >> Lex[N] + ∅

20

Plural rule in English is ...

Word[+pl] >> Lex[N] + s

21

The "present participle" is constructed with both a [______] rule and a [______] rule.

The "present participle" is constructed with both a [morphological] rule and a [phonological] rule.

22

The "present participle" is constructed with the morphological rule and the phonological rule...

Word[pres part] >> Lex[V] + ing

e + i > + i

delete +



23

Inflection creates [______] but not [______].

Inflection creates [words] but not [lexemes].

24

Derivation creates [______].

Derivation creates [lexemes].

25

4 ways derivation occurs are:

1.
2.
3.
4.

4 ways derivation occurs are:

1. affixes
2. shift stress
3. conversion e.g.: repurposing
4. backformation e.g.:

26

An example of derivation that uses "affixes" is:

e.g. un-cover

27

An example of derivation that uses "stress shift" is:

e.g. "re"cord (V) vs re"cord" (N)

28

An example of derivation that uses "conversion" is:

e.g. ink (N) > to ink (V) a contract

(repurposing a word)

29

An example of derivation that uses backformation is:

e.g. "edit" (V) from editor(N)
"wrinkle" (N) from wrinkled (PP)
"refrigerate" (V) from refrigerator (N)

30

Morphemes always maintain the same [______] otherwise it is not the same morpheme.

Morphemes always maintain the same [meaning] otherwise it is not the same morpheme.