LING 110 Ch 4: Alphabet Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LING 110 Ch 4: Alphabet Deck (118)
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1

Writing gives us the ability to [______] [______].

Writing gives us the ability to [record] [thoughts].

2

There are two main advantages to writing.

It allows us to [______] the:

1. [______] of [______]
2. [______]

It allows us to [extend] the:

1. [range] of [communication]
2. [memory]

3

Writing extends our range of communication in two ways:

1. [______]
2. [______] [______]

Writing extends our range of communication in:

a. time > it allows for cultural transmission to successive generations

b. geographic range > beyond shouting distance to anywhere someone can travel

4

How many main types of writings systems are there?

4

5

There are four main types of writing systems:

1. [______]
2. [______]
3. [______]
4. [______]

1. [pictographic]
2. [ideographic]
3. [syllabary]
4. [alphabet]

6

A pictographic system of writing uses [______] to represent [______] items.

A pictographic system of writing uses [pictures] to represent [concrete] items.

7

In a pictographic system, the symbols are actual [ ______ ] or [ ______ ] of what they represent.

In a pictographic system, the symbols are actual [ pictures ] or [ drawings ] of what they represent.

8

There are several disadvantages to a purely pictographic systems. These are:

a. it requires [ ______ ] [ ______ ]
b. it is difficult to represent [ ______ ] [ ______ ]
c. it is difficult to [ ______ ] some things from others (give an example)

There are several disadvantages to a purely pictographic systems. These are:

a. it requires [ adequate ] [ artistry ]
b. it is difficult to represent [ abstract ] [ concepts ]
c. it is difficult to [ distinguish ] some things from others (e.g. boy from son)

9

What is a rebus?

What did it enable?

A rebus is a principle that let's one write the name of one thing by using homophones.

It enabled the natural progression from a purely pictographic writing system to an ideographic one.

10

A rebus is = borrowing the [______] for a [______] object whose name is a [______] for an [______] object.

A rebus = borrowing the [symbol] for a [concrete] object whose name is a [homphone] for an [abstract] object.

e.g. K9, B4

11

An ideographic system of writing represents either a [______] or [______] [______].

An ideographic system of writing represents either a [concrete] or [abstract] [concept].

12

What distinguishes an ideographic system of writing from a pictographic system?

[An ideographic system of writing represents both concrete and abstract concepts while a pictographic only represents concrete concepts, i.e. things that can be drawn.

e.g representing "beauty" in a pictographic system is exceedingly difficult.]

13

Advantages of an ideographic writing system are:

a. [______]
b. [______]
c. [______]

Advantages of an ideographic writing system are:

a. [it allows for greater expression]
b. [it can be understood by speakers of different languages because it doesn't rely on speech sounds]
c. [it can still be read even if the language has changed so long as the symbols have not]

14

A syllabary represents [______].

A syllabary represents [syllables].

15

When is a syllabary an appropriate writing system?

A syllabary is appropriate only when there are lots of constraints on syllable structure in a language or ...

to say it another way, it's appropriate when there are a limited number of possible syllables.

e.g. Japanese Katagana and Hiragana

16

An alphabet is where (ideally) [______ ______] represents [______ ______].

An alphabet is where (ideally) [one symbol] represents [one sound].

17

The Semitic writing system is not considered a true alphabet because it did not [______ ______].

The Semitic writing system is not considered a true alphabet because it did not [represent vowels].

18

The Semitic system of writing came from the [______ - ______ ______ for ______] in the [______ ______ ______].

The Semitic system of writing came from the [22 - 24 symbols for consonants] in the [Egyptian writing system].

19

A writing system that only contains symbols for consonant sounds is called a [______].

A writing system that only contains symbols for consonant sounds is called a [abjad].

20

Developing an alphabet or a syllabary requires:

a. [______] of [______] [______]
b. agreement on what a [______] is

a. [analysis] of [distincitve] [sounds]
b. [word]

21

Most of the alphabets in existence today descended from the [______] [______].

[Greek] [alphabet]

22

Writing first evolved for [______ ______], that is, to keep track of [______ ______].

Writing first evolved for [economic reasons], that is, to keep track of [business transactions].

23

Business transactions were recorded using [______ ______] of [______] for example.

Business transactions were recorded using [clay figurines] of [animals] for example.

24

Eventually, to keep things honest, this evolved into firing these [______] into [______ ______].

Breaking the envelope to verify contents voided the transaction if done before it was time. This led to [______], a system of [______] that were pressed onto the outside of the [______] to indicate contents.

[______] is an [______] system of writing.

Eventually, to keep things honest, this evolved into firing these [figurines] into [clay envelopes].

Breaking the envelope to verify contents voided the transaction if done before it was time. This led to [cuneiform], a system of [wedges] that were pressed onto the outside of the [envelopes] to indicate contents.

[Cuneiform] is an ideographic system of writing.

25

Symbols came to represent sounds via the [______ ______].

Symbols came to represent sounds via the [rebus principle].

26

A determinative is a [______ ______] used to indicate whether a [______] should be interpreted as a [______ or a [______].

A determinative is a [secondary symbol] used to indicate whether a [symbol] should be interpreted as a [sound or a symbol].

27

Why did determinatives evolve?

Because the Egyptians had begun to interpret hieroglyphs using the rebus principle so they needed a secondary symbol to indicate if the symbol represented a sound or a symbol.

28

The hieroglyphic system eventually came to contain:

a. a large set of [______] for [______] and [______]
b. symbols for [______] and [______]
c. [______] to [______] symbols for [______]

a. a large set of [symbols] for [ideas] + [objects]
b. symbols for [sounds] + [determinatives]
c. [22] to [24] symbols for [consonants]

29

Who borrowed the consonants from the Egyptian hieroglyphic system and when?

a. the Semites borrowed the consonants
b. around 1700 BCE.

30

What did they do with these consonants and what did it enable?

a. they numbered and ordered them
b. which enabled literacy to increase