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Flashcards in LING 110 Ch 3: Origins Deck (41)
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1

Name the first class of changes in the Germanic Consonant Shift (GCS).

voiceless stops > voiceless fricatives

2

The term "philology" refers to [______ and ______ ______].

The term "philology" refers to [historical and comparative linguistics].

3

The term "sister language" refers to languages that [______ from the same ______] and that belong to the same [______ within the ______ of ______].

The term "sister language" refers to languages that [descend from the same parent] and that belong to the same [family within the tree of languages].

e.g.: German and English are sister languages, French and Spanish, Irish & Welsh... technically speaking if most of the Indo-European languages descended from PIE then the languages within each language tree are "sisters".

4

The term "acronym" is composed of [______ meaning ______] + [______ meaning ______].

The term "acronym" is composed of ["akron"] meaning "end, tip"] + ["onoma" meaning "name"].


5

The term "etymon" refers to the [______ ______] usually in a [______-______] and is composed of the word [______ meaning ______].

The term "etymon" refers to [original word] usually in a [proto-language] and is composed of the word ["etymos" meaning "true"].

6

The [______ ______] of a word in a [______] language that has descend from the etymon is called a [______].

The term [______] is composed of [______ meaning ______] + [______ meaning ______].

The [particular form] of a word in a [specific] language that has descend from the etymon is called a [reflex].

The term [reflex] is composed of ["re" meaning "back"] + ["flect" meaning "bend]. A reflex is a reflexion of the etymon.

7

The term "cognate" refers to words in [______ ______] that [______ from the same ______].

For example, we say that the words "mater in Latin", "mētēr in Greek", "matar in Sanskrit" are cognates with each other.

The term "cognate" refers to words in [different languages] that [descended from the same etymon].

For example, we say that the words "mater in Latin", "mētēr in Greek", "matar in Sanskrit" are cognates with each other.

8

Reflex is to [______] as Word is to [______].

Reflex is to [etymon] as Word is to [lexeme].

9

The dictionary indicates cognates using the terms [______ ______] and [______ ______].

The dictionary indicates cognates using the terms [akin to] and [more at].

10

The first class of changes in the GCS is that [______ ______ became [______ ______].

The first class of changes in the GCS is that [voiceless stops became voiceless fricatives].

11

List the 3 voiceless stops that were affected by the GCS and what they became.

[p] > [f}
[t] > [theta]
[k] > [h]

12

The second class of changes in the GCS is that [______ ______ became [______ ______].

The second class of changes in the GCS is that [voiced stops became voiceless stops].

13

List the three voiced stops that were affected by the GCS and what they became.

[b] > [p]
[d] > [t}
[g] > [k}

14

The third class of changes in the GCS is that became [______ ______].

The third class of changes in the GCS is that [voiced aspirates became voiced stops (non-aspirates)].

15

List the three voiced aspirates affected by the GCS and what they became in English.

NB: in English!

[bh] > [b]
[dh] > [d]
[gh] > [g]

16

In Greek, voiced aspirates became [______ ______].

List the three voiced aspirates affected by the GCS and what they became in Greek.

In Greek, voiced aspirates became [voiceless aspirates].

[bh] > [ph]
[dh] > [th]
[gh] > [kh]

17

In Latin, voiced aspirates became either [______ ______ or ______ ______].

List the three voiced aspirates affected by the GCS and what they became in Latin.

In Latin, voiced aspirates became either [voiceless fricatives or voiced stops].

[bh] > [f]
[dh] > [f] word initially AND
[dh] > [b] before R and U & word medially
[gh] > [h]

18

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The first of these is [______] which describes [______ ______ ______] is affected

e.g. [______...]

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The first of these is [manner] which describes [how air flow] is affected

e.g. [stop/plosives, fricatives, affricates, glides, laterals, nasals]

19

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The second of these is [______] which describes [______] a consonant is articulated

e.g. [______...]

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The second of these is [place] which describes [where] a consonant is articulated

e.g. [labial, labio-dental, inter-dental, dental, alveolar, alveo-palatal, palatal, velar, uvular]

20

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The third of these is [______] which describes [______ the ______ is ______ or not]

e.g. [______...]

We describe consonants using 3 descriptors:

The third of these is [voicing] which describes [whether the glottis is vibrating or not]

e.g. ["th" edh is voiced while theta is not]

21

The term "naturalization" refers to a [______] by which a [______ ______] starts to look like a [______ ______].

The term "naturalization" refers to a [process] by which a [borrowed word] begins to look like a [native word].

22

Naturalization happens once a word has been in a language long enough and is evidence of [______-______ behaviour in ______ ______].

Naturalization happens once a word has been in a language long enough and is evidence of [rule-based behaviour in word formation].

23

The reason we do not pronounce the "p" in "psychiatrist" or "pneumonia" is that [______] does not allow [______] such as [__] or [__] [______-______].

The reason we do not pronounce the "p" in "psychiatrist" or "pneumonia" is that [English] does not allow [strings] such as [ps] or[pn] [word-initally].

24

When talking "stress" in English, we say English is a [______ ______] language.


When talking "stress" in English, we say English is a [stress timed] language.

25

Word stress in English happens on the [______-______] while in French it happens [______-______].

Word stress in English happens on the [word-initally] while in French it happens [word-finally].

26

We can see evidence of naturalization in words that have been borrowed from the same source but at different times.

e.g. [______ vs ______]

We can see evidence of naturalization in words that have been borrowed from the same source but at different times.

e.g. [human vs humane]

27

The term "akin to" means [______ ______].

The term "akin to" means [cognate with].

28

The root in PIE of "feather" is [______].

The root in PIE of "feather" is [*pet].

29

Language families:

Greek: [______ ...]
Germanic: [______ ...]
Indo-Iranian: [______ ...]
Celtic: [______ ...]
Latin: [______ ...]
Slavic: [______ ...]

Greek:

[Greek]

30

Language families:

Germanic: [______ ...]

Germanic:

[English (OE-ME-CE), Dutch, German, Danish, Norwegian, Swedish]