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Flashcards in Liver and Pancreas Deck (91)
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1

The liver is the largest internal organ, how much does it weigh

Roughly 1.5kg in adults

2

Where is the liver located?

In the right quadrant of the abdomen, just below the diaphragm

3

The liver consists of four lobes, what are these?

two major and two small inferior

4

What is the parietal peritoneum?

Parietal peritoneum is that portion that lines the abdominal and pelvic cavities.

5

What is the visceral peritoneum?

Visceral peritoneum covers the external surfaces of most abdominal organs, including the intestinal tract.

6

What is the liver covered by?

A thin capsule and mesothelium of the visceral peritoneum

7

What is a mesothelium?

A membrane composed of simple squamous cells that form the lining of several body cavities

8

The liver receives a dual blood supply, explain.

It receives a dual blood supply from the hepatic artery which carries oxygen from the heart and hepatic portal vein which carries nutrient rich blood from the GI tract

9

Where does venous drainage of blood occur in the liver?

via the hepatic vein into the vena cava

10

What are the six main functions of the liver

1. fat metabolism
2. carbohydrate metabolism
3. protein metabolism
4. storage
5. intermediary metabolism
6. secretion

11

During fat metabolism, the liver is responsible for oxidising triglycerides to produce what?

energy

12

During fat metabolism, the liver is responsible for synthesising what three substances?

lipoproteins, cholesterol and phospholipid

13

During carbohydrate metabolism, the liver is responsible for converting carbohydrates and proteins into what?

fatty acids and triglyceride

14

During carbohydrate metabolism, what three methods are used by the liver in order to regulate blood glucose concentrations?

Glycogenesis, glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis

15

What is glycogenesis?

Glycogenesis is the process of glycogen synthesis, in which glucose molecules are added to chains of glycogen for storage.

16

What is glycogenolysis?

Glycogenolysis is the biochemical breakdown of glycogen to glucose whereas glycogenesis is the opposite, the formation of glycogen from glucose.

17

What is glyconeogenesis?

Gluconeogenesis (GNG) is a metabolic pathway that results in the generation of glucose from certain non-carbohydrate carbon substrates.

18

The liver holds the function of protein metabolism, give some examples of plasma proteins it is responsible for synthesising

albumin and clotting factors

19

The liver is responsible for the synthesis of non essential

amino acids

20

Under protein metabolism, the liver functions to detoxify what, and give an example

Detoxification of metabolic waste products such as the deamination of amino acids and urea production

21

What does the liver function to store

glycogen, vitamins and iron

22

How is the liver involved in intermediary metabolism?

Because it is involved in the detoxification of drugs and toxins such as alcohol

23

What secretory purpose does the liver hold

the synthesis and secretion of bile

24

What are the key liver cells called?

Hepatocytes

25

How are the hepatocytes arranged in the liver

Arranged as thin plates, only one cell thick

26

How would one describe the hepatocytes in terms of shape and nuclei?

Large cuboidal or polyhedral cells, round central nuclei, prominent nucleoli

27

Why is the cytoplasm of hepatocytes eosinophilic?

The cytoplasm has numerous mitochondria. Eosin is a pink colour and is an acidic dye - negatively charged that binds to positively charged particles like the mitochondria and many components of the cytoplasm

28

Hepatocytes are often seen as which types of cells? Uninucleate, binucleate or multinucleate?

BINUCLEATE BABES - they are commonly seen

29

More than half of the hepatocytes contain twice the normal complement of chromosomes, what are they referred to as?

tetraploid

30

When looking at a histology slide of a collection of hepatocyes, we may see irregular unstained areas. Why is this?

This is because the glyocogen and lipid are removed during processing