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Flashcards in The Urinary System Deck (53)
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1

What are the four major components making up the urinary system?

The kidneys, the ureters, the bladder and the urethra

2

Blood is supplied to each kidney by which vessels?

The renal arteries which arise from the aorta

3

Which vessels drain the blood from each kidney?

One or more renal veins drain the blood from each kidney to the inferior vena cava

4

The kidneys have a principle function of maintaining which three things

maintaining water, electrolytes and acid base

5

What do the kidneys excrete

toxic metabolic waste products especially nitrogenous molecules such as urea and creatinine

6

The kidney is involved in the osmotic regulation of what?

Blood plasma

7

The kidney is involved in other functions including hormonal and metabolic functions, list three things that they synthesise/aid in synthesis

Renin, erythropoietin and vit D

8

What does the renin synthesis in the kidney help in

a mechanism to control blood pressure

9

What does the synthesis of erythropoietin in the kidneys aid in

promotes red blood cell formation

10

How is the kidney involved in vitamin D and absorption of calcium

Vit d which regulates calcium balance is converted to a biologically active form in the kidney

11

What is the site of entry and exit of the renal blood vessels and the ureter called?

The hilium

12

*Label this kidney homie

There ya go

13

Where do nephrons arise from and where do they go to

nephrons arise in the cortex, loop down into the medulla and return to the cortex

14

The renal medulla is made up of how many pyramids?

10-18 pyramids

15

What do the renal medulla project into?

Into calyces-papillae / renal papillae

16

The surface of the calyces-papillae/ renal papillae is the opening of what?

The collecting ducts

17

The base of the pyramid consists of 400-500 elongated parallel arrays of tubules called?

medullary rays - they penetrate the cortex

18

What does each medullary ray consist of?

Straight collecting ducts surrounded by tubular portions of the nephron

19

What is the functional unit of the kidney?

The nephron

20

*Label this diagram of the functional unit of the kidney

there ya go

21

How many nephrons are there

1-4 million filtering units

22

What does the nephron consist of

the renal corpuscle, the proximal convoluted tubule, the loop of henle and the distal convoluted tubule , collecting duct

23

What is the renal corpuscle?

a tuft of capillaries, the glomerulus as well as the urinary poles, the afferent and efferent vessels, etc

24

who discovered the renal corpuscle?

sir william bowman - a surgeon 1816-1892

25

*Label this image of the renal corpuscle

there ya go

26

What are the two poles on the renal corpuscle

the urinary pole and the vascular pole

27

what may the glomerulus and bowman's capsule sometimes be referred to as

the malpighian body

28

What two layers are present on the Bowman's capsule

the visceral and parietal layer

29

*label the visceral and parietal layer of the Bowman's capsule

there ya go

30

The visceral layer of the bowmans capsule is modified during embryological development to form what?

Podocytes