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Flashcards in Muscle Deck (40)
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1

All cells are capable of some degree of movement, but some cells form multicellular contractile units called... drum roll..

muscles

2

what are the three types of muscles

skeletal, smooth and caridac

3

two words that describe skeletal muscle

striated, voluntary

4

two words that describe smooth muscle

non-striated, involuntary

5

two words that describe cardiac muscle

striated, involuntary

6

what are muscles surrounded by

an elastic lamina

7

what causes contractile forces to develop

contractile forces develop by internal contractile proteins transmitting forces to the external lamina via link proteins in the cell membrane

8

what is the skeletal muscle responsible for the movement of

responsible for the movement of the skeleton and organs like the tongue

9

why is the skeletal muscle referred to as voluntary

because it is capable of conscious control

10

what gives the appearance of striations in skeletal muscle

the arrangement of contractile proteins gives the appearance of cross-striations on light microscopy, so also called striated muscle

11

muscle is made up of highly specialised cells so what is the cytoplasm referred to, what is the endoplasmic reticulum referred to

cytoplasm - sarcoplasm, endoplasmic reticulum - sarcoplasmic reticulum, etc. plasma membrane - sarcolemma

12

what is skeletal muscle composed of in terms of cells

multinucleate contractile cells

13

what is skeletal muscle contraction mainly controlled by

the large motor nerve

14

what is a group of muscle fibres supplied by the same nerve called

a motor unit

15

when a nerve fires a motor unit, what happens

all the fibres in the motor unit contract simultaneously

16

what does the vitality of a skeletal muscle fibre depend on

the nerve supply, so if the supply is damaged, the muscle fibres atrophy

17

what are individual muscle fibres (cells) grouped together in

fasciculi

18

individual muscle fibres are grouped together in fasciculi with delicate supporting tissue called

endomysium

19

what is each fascicle surrounded by

a loose supporting tissue called perimysium

20

*label this diagram of muscle

there

21

a muscle involved in fine controlled movements such as controlling the eye has what sort of structure in terms of fasciculi and perimysium

small fasciucli and lots of perimysium

22

what do muscles involved in gross movements e,g. buttocks have in terms of fasciculi

large fasciculi

23

how would you describe the muscle fibres in skeletal muscle on a stained slide

each fibre is elongated, unbranched and cyclindrical

24

what is the nuclei of skeletal muscle fibres like

numerous flattened nuclei are located at regular intervals just underneath the plasma membrane (sacrolemma)

25

why are there cross striations seen in skeletal muscles

cross striations due to contractile proteins

26

what are the two contractile proteins

actin and myosin

27

in smooth muscle the arrangement of contractile proteins does not give the appearance of

cross striations

28

where can smooth muscle be found

the muscular component of visceral structures such as blood vessels, uterus, GI tract and bladder

29

under what control is smooth muscle

under inherent autonomic and hormonal control so called involuntary muscle

30

what type of contractions does smooth muscle take

specialises in continuous contraction of relatively low force producing diffuse wave like rhythmic movements