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Flashcards in Cell Structure Deck (66)
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1

How could you describe the cell as a system?

A system of membrane bound compartments each with a unique biochemical environment

2

What does the phospholipid bilayer consist of?

A polar hydrophilic head and a non polar hydrophobic tail

3

What does amphipathic mean?

Contains a hydrophobic and hydrophilic side

4

What percentage of the phospholipid bilayer is made up of proteins?

Roughly 50%

5

What are the three types of proteins?

Intrinsic, peripheral and transmembrane

6

Why does the EM of a bilayer show it as a trilaminar layer?

The outer edges are electron dense due to the hydrophilic head of inner layer and lipid tails of each layer but the central is electron lucent

7

What does the nucleus contain?

DNA and protein called nucleoprotein

8

What percentage of the nucleus is DNA?

20%

9

What types of nucleoprotein are there?

Histone proteins and non-histone proteins such as RNA

10

The nucleus is said to be heterogeneous, why?

It has electron dense and electron lucent areas

11

What is the electron dense area in the nucleus?

Inactive coiled chromatin found in irregular clumps

12

What is the electron lucent area in the nucleus?

Euchromatin - DNA active in RNA synthesis

13

Cells that are involved in highly active protein synthesis are able to be distinguished by staining due to...

A very dense nucleoli is present

14

The ribosomes and ribosomal RNA are constructed in the

nucleolus

15

Once the ribosomes and ribosomal RNA have been constructed where are they transported to?

The cytoplasm

16

In protein synthesis, what is transcription?

The DNA template of a particular protein is copied to form RNA

17

mRNA has _____ spliced out. Fill the gap

Introns

18

The mRNA is translated into a protein at which site?

The ribosomes

19

What is an intron?

A segment of a DNA or RNA molecule which does not code for proteins and interrupts the sequence of genes

20

Describe the general structure of the rough endoplasmic reticulum

A system of flattened tubules covered with ribosomes

21

What is the main function of the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

To export proteins

22

What continues on with the rough endoplasmic reticulum?

The smooth ER

23

What is the difference between RER and SER?

The smooth endoplasmic reticulum has no ribosomes

24

What is the main function of the smooth endoplasmic reticulum?

Synthesis of lipids and membranes; membrane repair

25

Give a brief description of the golgi

Stacked membrane bound cisternae

26

What is a cisternae in the golgi?

refers to a flattened membrane disk that makes up the Golgi apparatus

27

What is the main function of the golgi?

Glycosylation of proteins and package of proteins into secretory granules

28

What is the main function of the mitochondria?

The site of energy production by oxidative phosphorylation

29

What are the four compartments of the mitochondria?

The outer membrane
the inner membrane
the mitochondrial matrix
the inner membrane space

30

The inner membrane of the mitochondria folds to form

cristae