LMP301 Lecture 3: Fluid Balance Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LMP301 Lecture 3: Fluid Balance Deck (135)
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0

ECF can be subdivided into...

- Plasma
- Interstitial fluid (ISF)

1

How much ICF is there?

28L

2

How much ECF is there?

14L

3

How much plasma is there?

3.5L

4

How much ISF is there?

10.5L

5

ACE inhibitor = ?

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor

6

What are ACE inhibitors used for and how do they work?

Used for hypertension
Work by dilating blood vessels

7

What are the common electrolytes measured?

Na+
K+
Bicarbonate
Ca++
Potassium phosphate

8

Where are electrolytes measured from?

Plasma

9

Plasma and electrolytes are most abundant in...

ICF

10

Is it harder to do ECF or ICF measurement?

ICF

11

What are extracellular ions?

Na+
Cl-
HCO3-
Ca++

12

What are intracellular ions?

K+
PO4
Anions

13

Define: concentration

amount of solute in a solvent

14

Define: osmolality

amount of solute particles in a solvent (weight)

mmol/kg
mOsm/kg

15

How to estimate osmolality?

Measure the most abundant solutes:

2[Na+] & [Glucose] & [Urea]

16

Define: osmolarity

amount of solute particles in 1kg of water (WATER IS SOLVENT)

17

When measuring dilute aqueous solutions, the appropriate unit is...concentration / osmolality / osmolarity

osmolarity

18

One weakness of concentration measurements

Must take into account total volume of solvent (dehydrated might affect measurement of electrolytes)

19

Osmolarity is a passive / active process?

passive

20

Define: oncotic pressure

Pressure in the capillaries

Walls of capillaries act as semi-permeable membrane, and proteins pull water into plasma.

21

Define: hydrostatic pressure

Pressure exerted by the heart when it pumps

Pushes fluid in vessels into ISF.

22

Oncotic pressure is balanced by...

Hydrostatic pressure

23

Hydrostatic pressure is balanced by...

Oncotic pressure

24

What might affect oncotic pressure?

- Injury: cause proteins in plasma to leak out

25

Typical input of water?

0.5 - 5L per day

26

Amount of output of water through renal processes?

0.5 - 4L per day

27

Amount of output of water through GI tract?

< 0.1 L per day

28

Amount of output of water through insensible loss?

0.5 - 1L per day

29

Define: insensible loss

Loss of fluid through sweat & respiration