LMP301 Lecture 9: Adrenal Disease Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in LMP301 Lecture 9: Adrenal Disease Deck (87)
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1

Where are the adrenal glands?

On top of the kidneys

2

What happens to the adrenal gland during stressful situations?

enlarge

3

Adrenal gland is divided into...

- cortex
- medulla

4

The cortex of the adrenal gland is divided into...

- zona glomerulosa
- zona fasciculata
- zona reticularis

5

The adrenal medulla is a part of the...

SNS

6

Zona glomerulosa secretes....

aldosterone

7

zona fasciculata secretes...

- cortisol
- adrenal androgens & estrogens

8

zona reticularis secretes...

- cortisol
- adrenal androgens & estrogens

9

The adrenal medulla secretes...

- E
- NE
- Dopamine

10

What is the first enzyme to act on cholesterol during the biosynthesis of steroid hormones?

Cholesterol side chain cleavage hormone

11

What are the steroid hormones?

- aldosterone
- cortisol
- testosterone

12

ACTH

Signal needed for biosynthesis of steroid hormones

13

Enzyme cascade for aldosterone synthesis

1. Cholesterol side chain cleavage hormone
2. 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
3. 21 OH'ase
4. 11 OH'ase
5. 18 OH'ase

14

Enzyme cascade for cortisol synthesis

1. Cholesterol side chain cleavage hormone
2. 17 OH'ase
3. 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
4. 21 OH'ase
5. 11 OH'ase

15

Enzyme cascade for testosterone synthesis

1. Cholesterol side chain cleavage hormone
2. 17 OH'ase
3. 17,20 OH'ase
4. 3B-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase
5. 21 OH'ase

16

Which enzyme is unique to aldosterone synthesis?

18 OH'ase

17

Pathway of aldosterone synthesis

1. Cholesterol
2. Pregnenolone
3. Progesterone
4. Deoxycorticosterone
5. Corticosterone
6. Aldosterone

18

Pathway of cortisol synthesis

1. Cholesterol
2. Pregnenolone
3. 17-OH pregnenolone
4. 17-OH progesterone
5. 11-deoxycortisol
6. Cortisol

19

Pathway of testosterone synthesis

1. Cholesterol
2. Pregnenolone
3. 17-OH pregnenolone
4. DHEA
5. Androstenedione
6. Testosterone

20

Cortisol can affect...

metabolism of carbs, proteins, and fat

21

Effect of cortisol on carb metabolism

Raise blood glucose
- gluconeogenesis in liver
- reduce glucose used and stored

22

Effect of cortisol on protein metabolism

Break down muscle

23

Effect of cortisol on fat metabolism

Break down fat

24

What happens when glucocorticoids are present in excess?

cause central distribution of fat -> goes to face, neck, trunk

25

How do cortisol travel in the body?

90 - 98% is bound to proteins
- albumin
- cortisol binding globulin (CBG)

26

When can an increase of CBG be found?

- Pregnancy
- Estrogen treatment

27

How is cortisol metabolized in the body?

1. Liver
2. Excreted in urine

28

Axis that controls cortisol secretion

Hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenaocortical axis
1. Hypothalamus -> CRH
2. a. pituitary -> ACTH
3. adrenal cortex -> cortisol

29

Feedback of cortisol

Cortisol inhibits ACTH and CRH

30

What stimulates production of CRH?

Stress
Sleep/wake