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Flashcards in Lung Cancer And Tobacco Deck (48)
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1

If lung cancer is suspected by a GP, what is the maximum wait time to see to lung clinic?

2 week wait

2

Which cancer has the highest number of deaths worldwide?

Lung cancer

3

Name the cancers that are the biggest killers

Lung
Colorectal
Breast
Prostate
Oesophagus
Pancreas
Stomach

4

Which 3 cancers have the worst 5 year survival rates?

Pancreas
Lung
Leukaemia

5

What is an MST?

Median survival time

6

Why has lung cancer got an increased incidence in poorer communities?

More likely to smoke
Less access to health care
Less likely to seek help
English may not be first language

7

What is the commonest age group to get lung cancer?

60 - 80 years old

8

Tobacco smoking is linked to what proportion of all cancer deaths?

1/3

9

Apart from smoking, name some other lung cancer risk factors

Radon
Asbestos
Occupational carcinogens (nickel)
Genetic factors

10

List the criteria needed for an effective screening

Disease with serious consequences
High prevalence of detectable disease
Test detects little pseudo-disease
Test detects disease before critical point
Test causes little morbidity
Affordable and available
Treatment exists
Treatments is more effective when applied before symptom detection
Treatment not too risk or toxic

11

What percentage of people presenting with lung cancer actually have a treatable disease?

20%

12

Describe the basis of TNM staging

T = tumour
N = lymph nodes
M = metastases

13

Where does lung cancer spread locally?

Draining lymph nodes
Pleura
Pericardium

14

Where does lung cancer commonly spread to distally?

Brain
Liver
Adrenals
Bone

15

When staging lung cancer, what imagining techniques do we use?

CXR
CT scan
PET scan
(Consider MRI, USS, bone scan, ECHO)

16

How does a PET scan work?

Shows areas of increased activity (metabolism) in a tissue
(Glows orange)
We can figure out if lymph nodes are enlarged due to cancer or another reason

17

Other than cancer, name 2 lung conditions which in cause tissue to be overactive

Pneumonia
Sarcoidosis

18

Name some techniques for getting a tissue sample from the lungs

Bronchoscopy
USS guided
CT guided
Thoracoscopy
Surgical

19

Give some symptoms of a primary lung tumour

Cough
Dyspnoea
Wheezing
Haemoptysis
Lung infection
Chest/shoulder pain
Weight loss
Lethargy/malaise

20

What is the commonest presentation of lung cancer?

No symptoms

21

Give some symptoms that indicate regional metastases of lung cancer

Bloated face (SVC obstruction)
Hoarseness of voice
Dyspnoea
Dysphagia
Chest pain

22

Give some symptoms that indicate distant metastases of lung cancer

Bone pain or fracture
CNS symptoms
Hypercalcaemia
Hyponatraemia
Seizures
Thirst and constipation

23

Give some clinical signs of lung cancer

Finger clubbing
SVC obstruction
Cachexia
Pale conjunctiva
Cervical lymphadenopathy
Horner's syndrome
Consolidation
Signs of pleural effusion
Muffled heart sounds
Liver enlargement
Skin metastases

24

What is Horner's syndrome?

Pressing on the sympathetic trunk causing:
Miosis (constriction of pupil)
Ptosis (weak, droopy eyelids)
Anhidrosis (decreased sweating)

25

Name the endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer

Hypercalcaemia
Cushing's
SIADH

26

Give some neurological paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer

Encephalopathy
Peripheral neuropathy
Eaton-lambert

27

Give some haematological paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer

Anaemia
Thrombocytosis

28

Where do we usually do a biopsy for lung cancer?

In a regional lymph node
Confirm if it is cancer and has it spread

29

What is the most common type of lung cancer?

Non-small cell carcinoma

30

What are the different types of non-small cell carcinoma?

Squamous cell carcinoma
Adenocarcinoma
Large cell carcinoma