Flashcards in Lung Cancer And Tobacco Deck (48)
If lung cancer is suspected by a GP, what is the maximum wait time to see to lung clinic?
2 week wait
Which cancer has the highest number of deaths worldwide?
Name the cancers that are the biggest killers
Which 3 cancers have the worst 5 year survival rates?
What is an MST?
Median survival time
Why has lung cancer got an increased incidence in poorer communities?
More likely to smoke
Less access to health care
Less likely to seek help
English may not be first language
What is the commonest age group to get lung cancer?
60 - 80 years old
Tobacco smoking is linked to what proportion of all cancer deaths?
Apart from smoking, name some other lung cancer risk factors
Occupational carcinogens (nickel)
List the criteria needed for an effective screening
Disease with serious consequences
High prevalence of detectable disease
Test detects little pseudo-disease
Test detects disease before critical point
Test causes little morbidity
Affordable and available
Treatments is more effective when applied before symptom detection
Treatment not too risk or toxic
What percentage of people presenting with lung cancer actually have a treatable disease?
Describe the basis of TNM staging
T = tumour
N = lymph nodes
M = metastases
Where does lung cancer spread locally?
Draining lymph nodes
Where does lung cancer commonly spread to distally?
When staging lung cancer, what imagining techniques do we use?
(Consider MRI, USS, bone scan, ECHO)
How does a PET scan work?
Shows areas of increased activity (metabolism) in a tissue
We can figure out if lymph nodes are enlarged due to cancer or another reason
Other than cancer, name 2 lung conditions which in cause tissue to be overactive
Name some techniques for getting a tissue sample from the lungs
Give some symptoms of a primary lung tumour
What is the commonest presentation of lung cancer?
Give some symptoms that indicate regional metastases of lung cancer
Bloated face (SVC obstruction)
Hoarseness of voice
Give some symptoms that indicate distant metastases of lung cancer
Bone pain or fracture
Thirst and constipation
Give some clinical signs of lung cancer
Signs of pleural effusion
Muffled heart sounds
What is Horner's syndrome?
Pressing on the sympathetic trunk causing:
Miosis (constriction of pupil)
Ptosis (weak, droopy eyelids)
Anhidrosis (decreased sweating)
Name the endocrine paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer
Give some neurological paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer
Give some haematological paraneoplastic syndromes that can occur with lung cancer
Where do we usually do a biopsy for lung cancer?
In a regional lymph node
Confirm if it is cancer and has it spread
What is the most common type of lung cancer?
Non-small cell carcinoma