Introduction, Upper Tract And Histology Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Introduction, Upper Tract And Histology Deck (41)
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1

State Boyle's law

Pressure of a gas is inversely proportional to its volume
(If the temperature and number of molecules remains constant)

2

How many divisions of the airways do we have?

23 divisions

3

Define the conducting airways

The first part of the airways: divisions 1 - 16 of the respiratory tract where no gas exchange occurs

4

Define the respiratory zone

Lower part of the airways: divisions 17 - 23 where gas exchange can occur

5

What is the partial pressure of oxygen in alveolar air?

13.3 kPa

6

How do we work out the partial pressure of a gas in a mixture?

Work out the percentage of the gas in the mixture
Find the whole pressure
Times the two together as partial pressure of a gas is directly proportional to its percentage in the mixture

7

What is the saturated vapour pressure at body temperature?

6.23 kPa

8

How do we work out the amount of oxygen dissolved in the plasma?

Solubility coefficient of oxygen multiplied by the partial pressure of oxygen

9

What is another word for partial pressure?

Tension

10

Define atmospheric pressure

The pressure exerted by the weight of the air above the earth in the atmosphere

11

Describe 'the bends'

High pressure in the lungs causes nitrogen to move it a diver's blood. A slow return to the surface allows nitrogen to return to the lungs where it is breathed out. Swimming up too quickly doesn't give nitrogen enough time so it forms bubbles in the blood. These are very painful and can cause an air embolism.

12

What are the parameters of the upper respiratory tract?

External nose to the lower border of the cricoid cartilage

13

Where does the larynx become the trachea?

The lower border of the cricoid cartilage

14

What is another word for nostril?

External nare

15

What do we call the bony projections inside the nasal cavity and how many are there?

3 conchae/turbinates for each side of the nose
(Superior, middle and inferior)

16

What do we call the space under a concha?

Meatus

17

What is the function of the concha?

Allow the nasal cavity to slow the airflow by increasing the surface area over which it is passing (increased turbulence)

18

How do we smell?

Using the olfactory mucous membrane at the very top of the nasal cavity

19

What are the functions of the nasal cavity?

Filter (mucous/cilia)
Humidify
Warm

20

What drains into the nasal cavity?

Paranasal sinuses
Nasolacrimal duct

21

What are the names of the paranasal sinuses?

Frontal
Ehtmoidal
Sphenoidal
Maxillary

22

What is the pharynx?

A fibromuscular tube that extends from the base of the skull to C6
It allows the passage of air from the nasal cavity to the larynx

23

What are the 3 regions of the pharynx?

Nasopharynx
Oropharynx
Laryngopharynx

24

What is the Eustachian tube?

The tube that connects the nasopharynx to the middle ear

25

What are the functions of the larynx?

Guard air passages esp during swallowing
Maintains patent airway
Phonation

26

Define the glottis

The vocal cords and the space in between them

27

What is the rima glottidis?

The space between the 2 vocal cords

28

Give some examples of things that can cause laryngeal obstruction

Oedema
Foreign body
Tumour

29

How many lobes does each lung have?

Right = 3
Left = 2

30

Which parts of the respiratory tract do we class as extrapulmonary?

Nasal cavity to the primary bronchi