Interstitial Lung Disease, The Pleura And Chest Wall Flashcards Preview

Respiratory System > Interstitial Lung Disease, The Pleura And Chest Wall > Flashcards

Flashcards in Interstitial Lung Disease, The Pleura And Chest Wall Deck (37)
Loading flashcards...
1

What is the interstitium of the lungs?

Space in between alveoli and bloodstream
Needed to function

2

What is the role of the lung interstitium?

Release cytokines
Conduit for things to leave circulation and vice versa
Collagen formation

3

Interstitial diseases can affect many different parts of anatomy/physiology, name a few

Acini
Bronchioles
Mesenchyme
Alveoli lumen
Epithelia
Macrophages
Bronchiolar lumen
Inflammatory cells
Ventilation
Diffusion
Perfusion

4

Interstitial lung disease is what type of defect

Restrictive

5

What would the FEV1/FVC ratio for ILDs look like

FEV1 reduced
FVC reduced
Therefore ratio about normal

6

What is a common CXR finding for ILD?

Haziness
Looks like lace over the lungs

7

What do we call the rounded cystic areas in ILD?

Honeycombing

8

What are the 2 main symptoms of any ILD?

Chronic shortness of breath
Chronic cough

9

Give some signs on examination that would chest ILD

Clubbing
Cyanosis
Tachycardia
Tachypnoea
Signs of RH failure
Decreased chest movement
Coarse crackles

10

What are the classifications of ILDs?

Occupational
Treatment related
Connective tissue disease
Immunological
Idiopathic

11

What is the largest group of ILDs?

Idiopathic

12

Name some causes of occupational ILD

Asbestos
Silicone
Coal dust (coal workers pneumoconiosis)

13

Name some treatments that can cause ILD

Radiation
Methotrexate
Nitrofurantoin (given for UTI)
Amiodarone
Chemotherapy

14

Name some connective tissue diseases that can lead to ILD

Rheumatoid arthritis
SLE (lupus)
Polymyositis
Scleroderma
Sjogren's

15

Name some immunological problems that can cause ILD

Sarcoidosis (granulomas)
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis

16

Describe idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF)

Commonest ILD
60-80 years
Median survival = 3 years
Often diagnosed via CT
There are new therapies to treat: antifibrotics and vegF inhibitors

17

Define asbestosis

Interstitial lung disease caused by asbestos

18

Other than asbestosis, what other problems can asbestos exposure lead to?

Asbestos plaques
Diffuse pleural thickening
Benign asbestos pleural effusions
Mesothelioma
Bronchogenic lung cancer
Rounded atelectasis

19

Describe sarcoidosis

Often asymptomatic
Sometimes a cough and rash
Lung function tests can be normal or abnormal
Non-caseating granulomas
Differential: lymphoma and TB

20

What is the treatment for sarcoidosis?

Sometimes no treatment
Steroids
Methotrexate

21

Which pleura has somatic innervation?

Only the parietal

22

Describe pleuritic pain

Sharp
Severe
Worse with inspiration

23

What is the rate of pleural fluid turnover?

15 ml/day

24

How can liver cirrhosis affect the pleura?

Lack of production of albumin
Decreased oncotic pressure
Increased production of pleural fluid

25

What changes would cause increased production of pleural fluid?

Increased hydrostatic pressure capillaries
Increased permeability
Decreased oncotic pressure capillaries

26

What would cause decreased absorption of the pleural fluid?

Lymphatic blockage
Elevated systemic venous pressure

27

To be called an exudate, pleural protein divided by serum protein must be ...

> 0.5
(And LDH > 0.6)

28

What might we analyse pleura fluid for?

Appearance
Cell count
Protein
PDH
pH
Glucose
Cytology

29

What is pleural empyema?

Pockets of fluid
Not evenly affecting the lung

30

What are the most common cancers to send mets to the lungs?

Breast
Renal
Colon